Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering (Information Revolution and Global Politics)
John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Many countries around the world block or filter Internet content, denying access to information—often about politics, but also relating to sexuality, culture, or religion—that they deem too sensitive for ordinary citizens. Access Denied documents and analyzes Internet filtering practices in over three dozen countries, offering the first rigorously conducted study of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering takes place in at least forty states worldwide including many countries in Asia and the Middle East and North Africa. Related Internet content control mechanisms are also in place in Canada, the United States, and a cluster of countries in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of global Internet filtering undertaken by the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School, the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto, the Oxford Internet Institute at Oxford University, and the University of Cambridge) and relying on work by regional experts and an extensive network of researchers, Access Denied examines the political, legal, social, and cultural contexts of Internet filtering in these states from a variety of perspectives. Chapters discuss the mechanisms and politics of Internet filtering, the strengths and limitations of the technology that powers it, the relevance of international law, ethical considerations for corporations that supply states with the tools for blocking and filtering, and the implications of Internet filtering for activist communities that increasingly rely on Internet technologies for communicating their missions.
Reports on Internet content regulation in forty different countries follow, with each country profile outlining the types of content blocked by category and documenting key findings.
Contributors: Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
spheres of Internet link with outside world fails for fourth day” (text by official Chinese agency Xinhua), May 16, Burmese life. This may be why there are not 2006. many known cases of cyber-dissidents in cus- 14. Computer Science Development Law, sections 27, tody, given that people have been arrested for 28, September 20, 1996, http://www.myanmar.com/ anything from publishing subversive poetry to lis- gov/laws/computerlaw.html. 15. Digital Freedom Network, “The new Net regulations
Transparency ● Consistency ● Country Summaries 401 KEY INDICATORS worst best GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000 international $) ........6,086 4.39 Life expectancy at birth (years)..............................................68 5.32 Literacy rate (% of people age 15+)......................................99 6.87 Human development index (out of 177) .................................77 5.70 Rule of law (out of 208).......................................................136 3.80
the Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Jonathan Zittrain is professor of Internet governance and regulation at Oxford University and the Jack N. and Lillian R. Berkman Visiting Professor for Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Har- vard Law School. Index Accountability, 23–25 Biometric authentication, 66 Afghanistan, 240–244 Birdling, Malcolm, 4, 49, 73–101, 120 Algeria, 135, 245–248 BitTorrent, 52 Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), 91–94, 97 Blogger, 37, 48. See also Blogspot Amnesty
staff, at Harvard Law School and also across all institutions, with grace and poise. Rob deserves as much credit as anyone for the quality and integrity of the research that underlies this work, as well as for a great deal of the text in this book. Rob Faris has been joined and supported by an unusually strong group of research fellows on the Berkman Center’s team. Among these Berkman fellows, Derek Bambauer, now a law professor, stands out. Derek spent more than two years, as a student and
required to keep up with a fast Internet connection is very expensive. So systems like the BT Cleanfeed project3 were created, which give the versatility of HTTP proxy filtering at a lower cost. It operates by building a list of the IP addresses of sites hosting prohibited content, but rather than blocking data flowing to these 64 Steven J. Murdoch and Ross Anderson servers, the traffic is redirected to a transparent HTTP proxy. There, the full Web address is inspected and if it refers to