Advanced Practice Nursing: Emphasizing Common Roles
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The 3rd Edition of this AJN Book-of-the-Year Award winner prepares graduate nurses to meet the challenges of practice today and to take leadership roles in the future. From its historical roots to contemporary concerns and trends, the author traces the development of the advanced practice nursing role and articulates the major issues facing practitioners today.
Waste in government was condemned, balancing the budget became a priority, and social welfare programs were scrutinized with an eye to cost containment. Health care ceased to be a concern, except to the extent that public entitlement programs represented a large target for budget cuts. The sequence of events by which the sociopolitical environment forges public policies is familiar. These policies or their absence will shape the health care industry, including the role of APNs as participants in
participating is the most effective style. Finally, delegating, or allowing a maximum amount of freedom, is most effective for members with the highest level of readiness.15 Another prediction that should help the leader become more effective is based on the readiness of the group as reflected in its actual performance.15 The leader style should shift to the left on the curvilinear line (see Fig. 4–2) when performance in the group increases and should shift to the right when performance declines.
excelled in their ability to diagnose and treat human responses. They are able to identify and intervene in a much wider range of human responses than novices. Calkin said expertsby-experience may intuit much of their skill and may be unable to explain their actions. Nonetheless, they provide skillful care, having developed skill greater than knowledge. Advanced practice nurses are those able to manage the fullest range of human responses that is closest to the actual range of potential
services. To many, continued investment in primary care systems in the United States represents a logical solution to long-standing problems that have troubled the American health care delivery system in the past: unequal access, rising costs, fragmentation, and overemphasis on medical technology. THE NATURE OF PRIMARY CARE Definitions of Primary Care Definitions of primary care have evolved. White10 defined primary care as firstcontact care. Alpert and Charney11 added that primary care medicine
knowledge, testing innovations in practice; and testing the economics and cost-benefits of CNS practice. The NACNS CNS Educational Standards document was released in early 2004. These standards help assure that CNS academic programs focus on the same learning outcomes while not prescribing a uniform curriculum. CNSs, like other APNs, are scattered across the country and practice in many different types of settings. Future life-long learning needed for practice and career development will best be