Advanced Structural Wind Engineering
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This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.
1/1,975 1/3,160 1/3,950 5 1/200 1/400 1/1,000 1/1,995 1/3,990 1/9,975 1/15,960 1/19,950 of the design working life from 1 to 100 years. For a design working life of 50 years, the target values of the yearly exceedance probability range from 1/100 for class 0 to about 1/10,000 for class 5. For the evaluation of the wind resistance of existing buildings it may be necessary to extend the list of structural classes to buildings having specific cultural and historical values. These buildings have to
the understanding that virtually every wind climate may hide behind the observed parameters, however, with different probabilities. The probability p, that a specific triple (λ, s, k) randomly leads to the observed triple (λobs, sobs, kobs), can be obtained from simulations, i.e. for a wide range of triples (λ, s, k) the number of cases are counted which randomly lead to the observed triple. Then, the number of random matches for a specific triple is divided by the total number of random matches.
variations, which are greatly simplified in building codes and standard test methods. Most building codes specify component loads as single peak values that have only a few different values over the various building surfaces for a small range of buildings. Many building components have complex and redundant load paths; the chapter discusses how load sharing can be handled in such systems. The design of some building component and cladding systems depend on the storm duration and the numbers of
7.2.2 Temporal Variations of Wind Loads The temporal variations and the intermittent nature of the peak pressures were discussed in Sect. 7.2.1, pertaining to Figs. 7.1 and 7.5. As mentioned, the peak pressures are of very short duration due to the turbulence generated by the flow separation at the building edge and the turbulence in the wind. However, it is important to emphasize that there are a range of scales associated with these fluctuations, with energy up to roughly 10 Hz. Thus, it may
between layers is small, the volume between layers becomes relatively larger so that pl begins to behave like an internal pressure, pi, and becomes more spatially uniform and R tends to be reduced. Additionally, the size of the panels or components will play a role, although this has not been well quantified in the literature. Reductions of loads for pressure equalizing systems could be up to 40–60 % in some situations, although a 90 % reduction in the loads (i.e., R ¼ 0.9) may be possible. It is