Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide and Derivatives: RSC (RSC Clean Technology Monographs)
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Simple, but beautifully versatile. Perhaps not a description many would choose for hydrogen peroxide, but an accurate one none the less, and this unique book explains the reasons behind the description. Beginning with an historical overview, and guidelines for the safe handling of peroxygens, Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide and Derivatives goes on to cover key activation mechanisms, organic functional group oxidations and the use of hydrogen peroxide with heterogeneous catalysts. The clean-up of environmental pollutants; chemical purification; and extraction of metals from their ores are also discussed in detail, using actual examples from industry. The versatility of this reagent may well prove to be a key to integrated pollution control in the future. This book should therefore be read by academics and industrialists at all levels, to encourage wider applications of the use of hydrogen peroxide in laboratories.
prone to ring opening), distilled peracetic acid may be used. Under a range of controlled conditions, equilibrium mixtures can be distilled to give a product containing essentially only peracetic acid (> 30% m/m) and water. This technology has been proven on a plant scale97 and lends itself to the re-cycle of acetic acid. Peracetic acid can also be extracted into organic solvents such as ethyl or isopropyl acetates to give organic solutions containing over 20% m/m peracid. These solutions are
three-membered ring peroxide known as a dioxirane (Figure 3.17).71 The most common ketone employed is acetone, although for a more reactive system, methyl trifluoromethyl acetone can be used. The dioxiranes can be used via either an in situ10 or an ex situ method.71 If the in situ method can be tolerated then better yields are afforded based on the primary oxidant employed, i.e. the peroxymonosulfate, whereas isolation of the dioxirane only yields about 5-10% based on the peroxymonosulfate. The
strengths can be achieved as hydrogen peroxide does not form an azeotrope with water, but a number of technical safety requirements must be observed. Oxidizer off-gas a c c c c b Compressor Air Hydrogenated working solution Solution to extraction a = reactor; b = separation column; c = activated carbon adsorption unit. Figure 1.10 Solvay Inter ox oxidation method. Before we leave the discussion of industrial processes, it is worth mentioning one other autoxidation process, based on
'Peroxygen Compounds in Organic Synthesis— Oxidation at Carbon-Oxygen Bonds'. A. Dobrowsky, Monatsch. Chem., 1955, 86, 325. H.D. Daiken, Org. Synth, 1941, Vol. 1, 149. Solvay Interox, GB 2188927. Dequest is a Monsanto tradename. Mykon CIX is a Warwick International tradename. A.V. Wacek and H.O. Eppinger, Chem. Ber., 1940, 73, 644. Mitsubishi, GB 1431876. J. D'Ans and A. Kriep, Chem. Ber., 1915, 48, 1136. Denki Kagaku Kogyo, JP 48/103511. LM. Godfrey, M.V. Sargent and J.A. EHx, J. Chem. Soc,
nm in the UVVIS spectrum indicating the presence of Si-O-Sn units with Sn(IV) centres in a Conversion: 16.2% Conversion: 19.9 % Conversion: 15.9 % Figure 4.8 Distribution: Distribution: Distribution: Oxidation of arenes in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide and Sn-ZSM-12. Td configuration. The Sn-ZSM-12 catalyses the oxidation of phenol, m-cresol and xylene using aqueous hydrogen peroxide (Figure 4.8). The hydroxylation of phenol using Sn-ZSM-12 is relatively active, and has an