Art & Visual Culture 1600-1850: Academy to Avant-Garde
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This volume interrogates labels used in standard histories of the art of this period (baroque, rococo, neoclassicism, and Romanticism) and examines both established and recent art-historical methodologies, including formalism, iconology, spectatorship and reception, and identity and difference. Key topics include baroque Rome, Dutch paintings of the Golden Age, Georgian London, the Paris salon, and the impact of the discovery of the South Pacific.
establishment. Such concerns applied most to female nudes. By contrast, Pigalle’s nude sculpture of Voltaire (Plate 6.10) was decried for its ruthless anatomical realism, which undermined any claims to antique heroism, ideal, universal beauty or nobility.22 When Canova completed his commission for the sculpture Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker (Plate 6.20), he unleashed further anxieties about the nude in sculpture. Napoleon had expressed a preference to be represented in contemporary clothing, as
26 Ibid., p. 24. 27 Ibid. 28 Ibid., p. 29. 29 See Horace, De arte poetica, line 343. For the tag ut pictura poesis, see line 361. 30 See Renger, 1978, pp. 12–13. De Jongh himself suggests that artists may be placed on a scale of accessibility: ‘Works by Steen are generally easier to decode than ones by Metsu; Metsu is usually more comprehensible than Dou; and Dou, in turn, provides greater access than Vermeer.’ See Jongh, 1971, p. 52. 31 Westermann, 2002, p. 353. 32 Levinus Lemnius, An
Pratt – and those nominated by the City – Peter Mills, Robert Hooke and Edward Jerman. The diverse backgrounds of this group made them typical of those involved in architecture at this time. The idea of an ‘architect’ was only just gaining ground and the term ‘surveyor’ was more commonly used. Neither was there any such thing as an architectural profession, in the modern sense.7 ‘Architects’ were generally either gentleman amateurs or from the building trades. Peter Mills (1598–1670) and Edward
buildings and sculpture may have arrived at a variety of dates, rather than co-existing as part of a closely dated layout. Missing components may be visible in archival sources, either as descriptions or in visual sources, such as family sketches or more formal artists’ views.11 Wrest Park is one such example of a historic garden and parkland with a rich visual archive. This section introduces the use of historic images of gardens for their value as sources for the design history of a landscape.
with a rather different role to play in demonstrating the rank, magnificence and power of their patrons than the majority of gardens attached to landed estates. They also appear to be more similar in style than the national differences might suggest. Recent research and new methodologies have tested historians’ reliance on conceptions of national styles as a means of classifying historic gardens. The Dutch presence at the English court has been a particular focus of discussion. The