Belonging and Genocide: Hitler's Community, 1918-1945
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Exploring private letters, diaries, memoirs, secret reports, trial records, and other documents, this author shows how the Nazis used such common human needs as community, belonging, and solidarity to forge a nation conducting the worst crime in history.
distance from the “too vulgar” Nazis. Jost’s father had different concerns. He struggled to support his family by selling fabrics during the 50 fabricating the male bond day and playing piano in bars in the evening. Jost was betwixt and between. Other boys mocked him because he stuttered. But he wanted to belong, so before joining the Jungvolk in summer 1940, when he was ten years old, he memorized its dogma: “Boys of the Jungvolk are tough, discreet and true: Boys of the Jungvolk are
1910, he joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1931. As an SS man he participated in the attempt to assassinate Austria’s Chancellor Dollfuss in 1934. After his imprisonment and Austria’s annexation 61 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 33 34S 35R performing genocidal ethics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 33 34S 35R to Nazi Germany, Landau worked with Himmler’s Security Police and was awarded the Blutorden (Blood Order), one of
started shooting indiscriminately into the crowd of hundreds of Jews awaiting their deaths. Often victims who were shot but only wounded were thrown into the hole while still alive. Slowly the grave, ten to thirteen feet deep, ﬁlled up with the victims. When the job was ﬁnished, only some ten inches were left for covering. The perpetrators could relax. Following an invitation by Mayor Gelb, they joined a feast at the local restaurant. An orchestra played dance music. At the entrance a large
was not the masked self but rather the mask that managed the soldiers’ actions, whether they laughed at sexist jokes or terrorized enemy civilians. Beginning in fall 1941, the Soviet partisan movement grew and threatened German soldiers more than ever. In late November 1941, some civilians who were suspected of being commissars or partisans were brought in and “bumped off right away” by Farnbacher’s comrades. Others were sent to the division’s headquarters for further interrogation—“they will
happened to the Jews but no solidarity developed on their behalf, as Kardorff noted. The famous Rosenstrasse protest in Berlin in 1943 was a rare exception: Aryan women protested against the arrest and the possible deportation of their Jewish men until they were released. Usually, Germans who despised deportations and denunciations remained passive. On the home front as well as in the military a “spiral of silence” abetted a public climate of racism that neutralized individual deviation: those