Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx: The Influence of Bruno Bauer on Marx's Thought (Studies in Social History)
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The present work is aimed at filling a hiatus in the literature dealing with the Young Hegelians and the early thought of Karl Marx. Despite the prevalent view in the past few decades that Bruno Bauer played an important part in the radical activity of Hegel's young disciples in the eighteen forties in Germany, no comprehensive work has so far been published on the relations between Bauer and Marx. In 1927 Ernst Bar nikol promised to write a monograph on the subject, but he never did. For the purpose of this study I perused material in numerous library collections and I would like to express my gratitude to the staff of the following institutions: Tel Aviv University Library, the Library and Archive of the International Institute of Social History in Am sterdam, the Heidelberg University Library, the Library of Gottingen University, the Tiibingen University Library, Frankfurt University Library, the State Library at Marburg, the Manuscript Department of the State Archives in Berlin.
he wrote, "then this thought is already contained in feeling or, to be more exact, feeling is the direct manifestation of thought."19 Elsewhere Bauer points to the fact that "in the definition of feeling, God appears as the infinite and unlimited extension of the self."2o The tendency to subjectivization of religion and to a view of human intellectual activity as the source of religion is also evident in other Bauerian ideas; he says, for example that "God or redemption are the products of
the worldwide rule of religion", 92 "liberated the human spirit in fact from religious chatter and provided a prop and legitimization for the existence of mankind without religion."93 At the same time, materialism is incapable of comprehending man, with all his specific spiritual qualities or seeing the true place of the self85 86 Ibid. p. I54. Ibid. pp. I54-I59. 87 Fae 6I-62. 88 Bl'emisches Magazin ... , p. I32. 89 90 91 92 93 Die chl'istliche Glaubenslehre . .. , p. Idem. LF ra3. ECh I5S.
and economic categories are all philosophical concepts. Even Marx's early writings are not philosophical." (Reason and Revolution, Boston, Mass., Beacon Press I9685, p. 258). Koigen's conclusions can be justified if we take into consideration that he had neither Marx's dissertation nor the Manuscripts at his disposal. But it is surprising that Marcuse fails to see the philosophical problems hidden in Marx's early writings. Even if one disregards the dissertation which deals with a specific
man to deteriorate to the animal level, and animals have no need of restraint by the norms of religious ethics. "In fear man is determined as an animal [ ... J, and for the animal there is no importance to the question of how he is restrained."2 For the young Marx all the evil in the world derives from the view of the human world in the divine cosmic sphere and from negation of the independence of human beings, who, through religion, forfeit the most precious thing - human nature, since man was
Activity in Marx's PhilosoPhy. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff 1967, p. 109 (MEGA I, I, i, p. 51). 9 MEGA I, I, i, p. 15; Dif 64. 5 6 MARX'S DISSERTATION of self-consciousness evolved in Greece were transferred to Rome and hence to the modern world: "Finally, if we take a glance at history, are Epicureanism, Stoicism and Scepticism special phenomena? Are they not rather prototypes of the Roman mind, the form in which Greece emigrated to Rome? Are they not such intense and eternal beings, so full