Building with Earth: Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture
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For a number of years, the healthy and environment-friendly building material earth, in common use for thousands of years, has been enjoying increasing popularity, including in industrialized nations. In hot dry and temperate climate zones, earth offers numerous advantages over other materials. Its particular texture and composition also holds great aesthetic appeal.
The second and revised edition of this handbook offers a practical systematic overview of the many uses of earth and techniques for processing it. Its properties and physical characteristics are described in informed and knowledgeable detail.
The author s presentation reflects the rich and varied experiences gained over thirty years of building earth structures all over the world. Numerous photographs of construction sites and drawings show the concrete execution of earth architecture.
13). 2 Loam stores heat Like all heavy materials, loam stores heat. As a result, in climatic zones with high diurnal temperature differences, or where it becomes necessary to store solar heat gain by passive means, loam can balance indoor climate. 1.9 12 3 Loam saves energy and reduces environmental pollution The preparation, transport and handling of loam on site requires only ca. 1% of the energy needed for the production, transport and handling of baked bricks or reinforced concrete. Loam,
(without intermediate products being formed or intermediate processes). Its disadvantage is that even lean loam of only 10% to 15% clay shows linear shrinkage of 3% to 6% when drying. The higher the clay content and the more water employed, the greater the shrinkage. Thick loam paste with high clay content may even have a linear shrinkage ratio of above 10%. IllustraDirect forming While in the case of earth block work, dry elements are built up with mortar joints, no mortar is used with wet loam
14.70 less inclined so that the top layer has 20° less inclination and a partial corbelling effect can be seen. This, furthermore, has the advantage that no sound-focusing effect occurs (14.68). The blocks used were tapered and extruded through a special snout in a mechanical brick plant. Domes and vaults on formwork It is very labour- and material-intensive to build formworks for domes, which is why nearly all historical dome construction techniques avoided it. An exception is the shallow
245 m² 175 Residences Kindergarten, Sorsum, Germany The kindergarten has a central dome, built from loam (mud) bricks and with a free span of 10 m, over a multi-purpose hall. Its thickness is only 30 cm. Each of the three group rooms is covered with two domes which meet at a central arch. The roofs of the side rooms and corridors are formed by a timber structure. Most of the outside walls are earth-bermed. The whole building is covered by a 15-cm-thick earth layer and living grass. The
2.9. If the ball flattens only slightly and shows few or no cracks, like the sample on the left, it has a high Properties of earth 2.7 2.9 binding force due to high clay content. Usually this mixture must be thinned by adding sand. If the test looks like the sample on the right, it has very low clay content. Its binding force is then usually insufficient, and it cannot be used as a building material. In the case of the third sample from the left, the mixture has a relatively poor binding