Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS, 3e
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With its unique clinical perspective and evidence-based coverage, Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS is the definitive reference for applying anatomic considerations to the evaluation and management of conditions of the spine and associated neural structures, including spinal impingement and subluxation. High-quality color illustrations and photographs, as well as abundant radiographs, CT, and MRI images, visually demonstrate specific anatomic and neuromusculoskeletal relationships and highlight structures that may be affected by manual and surgical spinal techniques or other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
- Coverage of the mechanisms behind the evaluation and treatment of clinical conditions
- Special emphasis on structures that may be affected by manual and surgical spinal techniques and by other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to the spine provides more focused coverage than general anatomy references.
- Diagnostic imaging technology is highlighted throughout, with radiographs, CTs, and MRIs that demonstrate the relevance of anatomy to clinical practice.
- High-quality color illustrations and photographs enhance your understanding and assist with diagnostics.
- Highlighted items allow you to quickly locate clinically relevant information.
related to the spine and associated neural structures helps you connect theory to practice by providing the rationale behind treatments.
- Updated, evidence-based content
- New section on fascia provides the latest information on this emerging topic.
- New illustrations, including line drawings, MRIs CTs, and x-rays, visually clarify key concepts.
ensures you have the information needed to provide safe, effective patient care.
the TPs and its anterior origin from the lumbar vertebral bodies and IVDs, the psoas major almost completely surrounds the lateral opening of the first four lumbar IVFs. Therefore the anterior primary divisions (ventral rami), by necessity, run through the substance of the psoas major muscle, frequently uniting with neighboring ventral rami within the muscle to form the branches of the lumbar plexus. In addition to the protection given by the dural root sleeve and the meningovertebral (Hoffmann)
motor neurons, and work with the elastic components of muscle to resist stretch. Normal muscle tone serves three important functions. First, it assists in maintaining posture, or the resistance of the muscle to the forces of gravity. Muscle tone helps to ensure that the center of gravity is aligned over the base of support. Second, because of a muscle’s inherent ability to act as a spring, it can store energy and release it at a later time. This is particularly important for movements such as
hypothalamus, amygdala, and medial areas of the thalamus. These dorsal column fibers transmitting visceral nociception to higher centers have been suggested as being as important as or more important than the spinothalamic tract (Beyak et al., 2006; Wood, 2007). The data that have demonstrated the termination of visceral afferent fibers in the spinal cord gray matter also lend credence to the convergence-projection theory of referred pain (Ruch, 1946). This theory maintains that referred pain
2003). Also, unlike tendons, there is no fascicular arrangement of the bundles of fibers, making ligaments less vascular than tendons. In most ligaments of the body, the fibers are predominantly type I collagen fibers, giving a great amount of tensile strength, but no elasticity (see Fig. 14-19). Because of the high amount of collagen, these ligaments appear white to the unaided eye, and sometimes this dense regular collagenous tissue is called white connective tissue. One exception to this is
pressure, stimulus increasing, 479–480 Mechanical nociceptor, 343 Mechanocoupling, 621 Mechanoreceptor, 29 classification of, 344 diagram of, 343f innervation by, 30 role of, 342 types of, 342–343 Mechanotransduction diagram of, 622f fibroblasts and, 621 Medial lemniscus, 363, 364f Medial longitudinal fasciculus, 383–384 location of, 384 Median atlanto-axial joint, 169 arthritis and, 171 diagram of, 174f Median furrow (sulcus), 2, 2f Median nerve diagram of, 346f–347f role