Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders: A Step-by-Step Treatment Manual
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With over 75,000 copies sold, this clinical guide and widely adopted text presents authoritative guidelines for treating frequently encountered adult disorders. The Handbook is unique in its focus on evidence-based practice and its attention to the most pressing question asked by students and practitioners—“How do I do it?” Leading clinical researchers provide essential background knowledge on each problem, describe the conceptual and empirical bases of their respective approaches, and illustrate the nuts and bolts of evidence-based assessment and intervention.
anxious participants in this study. Heimberg, Dodge, and colleagues (1990) conducted the first controlled trial of his group treatment for social anxiety disorder, which comprised integrated exposure, cognitive restructuring, and homework assignments (i.e., cognitive-behavioral group therapy [CBGT]). This treatment was compared to an attention control treatment that comprised education about social anxiety disorder and nondirective supportive group therapy. CBGT participants reported less anxiety
Factor analyses confirmed three distinct factors labeled Agoraphobia, Social Phobia, and Interoceptive Fears. The questionnaire has adequate psychometric properties and is useful in profiling agoraphobic versus interoceptive avoidance. The second, the Anxiety Control Questionnaire, is a 30-item scale that assesses perceived lack of control over anxiety-related events and occurrences, such as internal emotional reactions or externally threatening cues (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow, 1996). This
may have failed are reviewed. Typical reasons for patients’ past failures at in vivo exposure include attempts that are too haphazard and/or brief, or spaced too far apart, and attempts conducted without a sense of mastery, or while maintaining beliefs that catastrophe is very possible. Julie had tried to face agoraphobic situations in the past, but each time she had escaped, feeling overwhelmed by panic and terrified of losing touch with reality permanently. The therapist helped Julie realize
tolerance of these physical sensations was also puzzling in view of his tremendous capacity to endure pain. Any number of factors might account for what seemed to be “overvalued ideation” or very strongly held irrational ideas during periods of anxiety, including the fact that the patient has several relatives who have repeatedly been hospitalized for emotional disorders (seemingly mood disorders or schizoaffective disorder). Nevertheless, the fact remains that we do not know why this patient did
THEORETICAL MODELS OF PTSD As researchers and behavioral therapists began to study and treat survivors of rape trauma and Vietnam veterans in the 1970s, they began to draw upon learning theory as an explanation for the symptoms they were observing. Mowrer’s two-factor theory (1947) of classical and operant conditioning was first proposed to account for posttrauma symptoms (Becker, Skinner, Abel, Axelrod, & Cichon, 1984; Holmes & St. Lawrence, 1983; Keane, Zimering, & Caddell, 1985; Kilpatrick,