Craft of Political Research, The (7th Edition)
W. Phillips Shively
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This highly accessible book provides a basic introduction to the nature of research questions and methods of empirical research in political science. It describes the cooperative process, as well as the logic of empirical measurement and analysis of observations, in the conception and pursuit of a research project. Emphasizing the design of interesting research questions and basic problems of measurement and data analysis, the book relies more on intuitive understanding than on formal development.
W. Phillips Shively wrote this book in 1970, when he was an assistant professor at Yale University. In teaching a number of sections of Introduction to Research to undergraduates there, he had found that the students benefited from an introduction that emphasized the internal logic of research methods and the collective, cooperative nature of the research process. He could not find a book that presented things in this way at a sufficiently elementary level to be readily accessible by undergraduates. And so he wrote The Craft of Political Research.
W e w o r k under sufficient difficulties, e s p e c i a l l y engineer. B u t these voting patterns, o c c u r r i n g j u s t after the extension of the vote to the fact that we u s u a l l y cannot operate by experimentation (see C h a p t e r 6 ) , that our w o m e n , might be important for theories of h o w voting patterns b e c o m e established results are to s o m e extent a subjective interpretation of reality. We operate w i t h i n a m o n g new voters. H o w to c h o o s e an
Ordinal Variables." In Hubert M. Blalock, Jr., ed., Causal Models in the Social Sciences, pp. 415^131. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton. W I N C H , ROBERT E , and DONALD T. CAMPBELL. 1969. "Proof? No. Evidence? Yes. The Significance of Tests of Significance," American Sociologist, 4 (May), 140-143. ZALLER, JOHN. 1998. "Politicians as Prize Fighters: Electoral Selection and Incumbency Advantage." In John Geer, ed., Politicians and Party Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Index D
d g m e n t , of c o u r s e , but before y o u begin y o u r country h a d had e x a c t l y the s a m e n u m b e r o f p a r t i e s — t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n nothing r e s e a r c h , y o u s h o u l d try to j u s t i f y y o u r c h o i c e of topic, not o n l y to y o u r s e l f but a l s o for D u v e r g e r to e x p l a i n . If one or the other of h i s independent v a r i a b l e s h a d not to y o u r a u d i e n c e . Y o u r r e s e a r c h report s h o u l d i n c
o r l d w o u l d provide a laboratory of less-developed countries with a wider range of cultures 4. Present your theory as clearly and vividly as possible. A Machiavellian researcher wants to i n f l u e n c e as m a n y people as p o s s i b l e , so it m a k e s sense to m a k e y o u r reader's life e a s i e r and y o u r m e s s a g e more c o m p e l l i n g . T h i s m e a n s , write w e l l and present any g r a p h i c information w e l l . People often think how y o u say s o m e t
past several decades, it was actually political scientists of a sort who first developed the field, for statistics originally grew out of the need to keep records for the state. The name statistics derives from the Latin statisticus, "of state affairs." Statistics includes two main activities: statistical inference and statistical measurement (including the measurement of relationships, with which we are concerned in this chapter). Statistical inference consists of estimating how likely it is