Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an Ecosophy
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Ecology, Community and Lifestyle is a revised and expanded translation of Naess' book Okologi, Samfunn og Livsstil, which sets out the author's thinking on the relevance of philosophy to the problems of environmental degradation and the rethinking of the relationship between mankind and nature. The text has been thoroughly updated by Naess and revised and translated by David Rothenberg.
never with our own interests primarily in mind. Overviews of ways we choose (or are chosen) to interact and construct 20 Introduction: Ecosophy T-from intuition to system the environment are available.32 There are various trends and poles in such a discussion that are blurred in reality. Is Man a part of nature? Defined by nature? Or are we free to construct nature ourselves, or enter it through various phenomenological approaches which can involve both the observer 'constructing his reality'
acceptable, with a smile, and that is important. 82 Fact and value; basic norms Basic norms associated with the three listed possible goals can be formulated: (1) Choose that alternative for action which gives most pleasure! ('hedonism') Immediately, questions crop up. Most for whom? Most for myself? For Norway? For developed and developing countries? For every living being? For our generation? In the long run? Immediately? -Any kind of pleasure? What if an alternative gives most pleasure,
economics. 3 'as seen from a purely economic standpoint. . .' Social activity in non-industrial countries includes economic activities. These have a high degree of complexity and are mostly directed towards household needs of local communities. Much was ceremonial or related to kinship. The economic mores of industrial countries have ancestors in non-industrial cultures, the mores of hucksters. The essence of economic activity tends now to be abstracted from the social matrix. Expressions like
choice of profiles. The term 'profile' is used because you then have to compare a tremendous number of goods and services, put into the various classes of such things. This leads to other important notions, namely individual welfare, international, global welfare, and then something very important for environmentalists: the welfare of any living being which can be said to experience satisfaction or have preferences. Most of the welfare theories so far have thought of human beings exclusively,
years of research and technical development can solve any major ecological problems of any kind. Nevertheless, we must be alert and try to anticipate the next move of our governments, and main unecological agencies such as the so-called forest services. (2) Green politics combines local and global perspectives, trying to tone down the excessive role of national and international structures. What is known as 'national identity' is based on local communities. Inter-local communication largely