Enabling Things to Talk: Designing IoT solutions with the IoT Architectural Reference Model
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging network superstructure that will connect physical resources and actual users. It will support an ecosystem of smart applications and services bringing hyper-connectivity to our society by using augmented and rich interfaces. Whereas in the beginning IoT referred to the advent of barcodes and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which helped to automate inventory, tracking and basic identification, today IoT is characterized by a dynamic trend toward connecting smart sensors, objects, devices, data and applications. The next step will be “cognitive IoT,” facilitating object and data re-use across application domains and leveraging hyper-connectivity, interoperability solutions and semantically enriched information distribution.
The Architectural Reference Model (ARM), presented in this book by the members of the IoT-A project team driving this harmonization effort, makes it possible to connect vertically closed systems, architectures and application areas so as to create open interoperable systems and integrated environments and platforms. It constitutes a foundation from which software companies can capitalize on the benefits of developing consumer-oriented platforms including hardware, software and services.
The material is structured in two parts. Part A introduces the general concepts developed for and applied in the ARM. It is aimed at end users who want to use IoT technologies, managers interested in understanding the opportunities generated by these novel technologies, and system architects who are interested in an overview of the underlying basic models. It also includes several case studies to illustrate how the ARM has been used in real-life scenarios. Part B then addresses the topic at a more detailed technical level and is targeted at readers with a more scientific or technical background. It provides in-depth guidance on the ARM, including a detailed description of a process for generating concrete architectures, as well as reference manuals with guidelines on how to use the various models and perspectives presented to create a concrete architecture. Furthermore, best practices and tips on how system engineers can use the ARM to develop specific IoT architectures for dedicated IoT solutions are illustrated and exemplified in reverse mapping exercises of existing standards and platforms.
interests of the user, such as generating architectures by aid of the IoT ARM (Chaps. 6, 11 and 12), and how to use the IoT Reference Models presented in Chap. 7. We also shed light on how other IoT architectures relate to the IoT ARM (Chap. 12 sections about reverse mapping ETSI M2M, EPC Global, Ucode, BUTLER), and we also illustrated, how already existing systems can be mapped onto the IoT ARM (Chap. 12, Sect. 12.6). Notice that by its very nature this part of the book is not an insulated part
are carried out for disabling a service offered to legitimate users (as opposed, for example, to more subtle schemes wherein the attacked service can be altered, e.g. making a search service return false results, without the legitimate users being able to notice it); • Elevation of privilege may occur in systems that feature different classes of users, each class being mapped to a specific set of rights. Illegitimate elevation of privilege occurs when an attacker manages to acquire rights that
emphasis is put on one-to-one transactions wherein a service is accessed by a remote player. These transactions require a secure transaction set up. The service-access control involves in its most secure embodiments an authentication phase that can be based on various authenticating credentials. It has to be noted, though, that these authenticating credentials have to be mapped to an identity in order to fulfil their role. When the peer identity is not known prior to establishing a transaction,
Model discussed in this chapter. Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Chapter 8 IoT Reference Architecture Martin Bauer, Mathieu Boussard, Nicola Bui, Jourik De Loof, Carsten Magerkurth, Stefan Meissner, Andreas Nettstra¨ter, Julinda Stefa, Matthias Thoma, and Joachim W.
Services or has been added directly by a user of the IoT system can be stored by a special class of IoT Service, the history storage. A history storage may exist on the level of data values directly gathered from sensor resources as a resource history storage or as a history storage providing information about a Virtual Entity as a Virtual Entity history storage. IoT Services are registered to the IoT system using Service Descriptions. Service Descriptions can be provided by the services