Encyclopedia of Warfare: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The Encyclopedia of Warfare is a chronological account of the development of warfare since the beginnings of recorded history. The book is organized in 10 chapters, each of which looks at a particular era in warfare from the ancient world to the present. Each chapter includes color maps of key campaigns, as well as commentary on battles, personalities, troops, and equipment. Sidebars throughout the main narrative focus on noteworthy aspects of the history of conflict. Through its chronological organization and ample use of maps, the Encyclopedia also clearly conveys the link between war and world geographical history. A thorough yet concise exploration of combat throughout human history, this fascinating and informative reference work is an outstanding addition to any library collection.
them. Only the best infantry could hope to defeat them in battle. Raiding expeditions normally only took place in summer, but to save themselves from having to return home for the winter, the Vikings began to set up bases near the areas they raided. When the opposition became too strong in one area, or the local ruler paid “protection money,” the Vikings would simply move on. In some instances, nobles hired groups of Viking warriors to help them fight off other marauding Viking bands. In 865
and his fortress could be destroyed by fire. During the 12th century, nobles began to replace their wooden structures and build stone castles. For greater protection the castle builders often filled the ditch around the castle with water to create a moat. They also placed a drawbridge across the moat leading to the castle entrance. When the castle came under attack, the drawbridge was raised, forcing the enemy to find another way across the moat. The entrance to the castle itself was guarded by a
years before it eventually fell. In 1081 he crossed the Adriatic and besieged the coastal city of Durazzo (Durris in modern Albania). A Byzantine army was sent to relieve it, and in the ensuing battle the crack Byzantine infantry, the Varangian Guard (themselves of Viking origin), drove the Norman cavalry back into the sea. Then, with his army at the point of defeat, Guiscard rallied his wavering knights for one last effort that scattered the Byzantine forces. 149 A scene from the Bayeux
there was no food left in Antioch, leaving the Crusaders weak with starvation. On June 28, inspired by the discovery of a holy relic in Antioch’s cathedral, the Crusaders took a gamble and marched out of the city to do battle with the Seljuks. The Muslims attacked but were pushed back, and a Crusader counterattack drove off the Muslim force. In January 1099 the Crusaders pushed on toward Jerusalem. They followed the coast most of the way, enabling an Italian and English fleet to keep them
He was replaced by his nephew, Saladin (1137–93), who was to prove an outstanding leader of the Seljuks. Saladin had taken complete control in Egypt by 1171. When Nur el-Din died in 1174 Saladin seized power in the Seljuk Empire, sweeping aside all who challenged him and building up a power-base for future operations against the Christians. By 1187 Saladin felt sufficiently strong to declare a holy war against the Christians. On July 1, Saladin’s army – 30,000 strong – crossed the Jordan River