English Grammar: A University Course (2nd Edition)
Angela Downing, Philip Locke
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This comprehensive and up-to-date descriptive grammar is a complete course for first degree and postgraduate students of English, especially those whose native language is not English. It is also used as a reference book providing the linguistic basis for courses and projects on translation, contrastive linguistics, stylistics, reading and discourse studies. Grammatical usage is illustrated with authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and written.
This new edition has been thoroughly rewritten and redesigned with many new texts and examples of language in use.
Key features include:
· Chapters divided into modules of class-length materials
· A wide variety of authentic texts and transcriptions to illustrate points of grammar and to contextualise structure
· Clear chapter and module summaries enabling efficient class preparation and student revision
· Exercises and topics for individuals
Predicator Object and Complement The Adjunct 35 35 36 4.2 Criteria for the classiﬁcation of clause elements 37 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Determination by the verb Position Ability to become the subject Realisations of these functions 37 38 38 39 4.3 Basic syntactic structures of the clause 4.4 Realisations of the elements 39 40 Module 5: Subject and Predicator 42 5.1 The Subject(s) 5.1.1 Semantic, cognitive and syntactic features 5.1.2 Realisations of the Subject 5.2 The Predicator 42
seiscientos kilómetros a Barcelona. C. Unstressed there – There’s plenty of time Unstressed there (see 19.3; 30.4) fulfils several of the syntactic criteria for subject: position, inversion with auxiliaries and repetition in tag phrases; but unlike normal subjects it cannot be replaced by a pronoun. Concord, when made, is with the following NG: There was only one ﬁne day last week, wasn’t there? There were only two ﬁne days last week, weren’t there? Concord with the following NG is made in
preposition to form a new lexical unit (look after, take to). The latter are given separate entries in dictionaries and, in those dictionaries which provide grammatical information, are given different analyses. The PP following Type 3 verbs such as smile and wait is often classiﬁed as Adjunct or as prepositional Complement (PPC). According to use in context, one analysis may be more suitable than another. In this book we use the term prepositional Object for the NG complement of a preposition
‘grammatical metaphor’. Its most obvious characteristic is nominalisation. 2 Thus, a process can be realised as an entity: government spending is one example. Similar transferred functions occur with attributes and circumstances. These alternative realisations of the semantic roles involve further adjustments in the correspondences between semantic roles and syntactic functions in the clause. 3 Grammatical metaphor is a feature of much written English and of spoken English in professional
next village, where you can get quite a good meal. On the ﬂoor there lay . . . . . . . Just opposite the cinema there’s . . . . . . .you can send an email from there. There’s no . . . . . . .to lose; the taxi will be here in ﬁve minutes. 2b †In which of the clauses in 2 could there be omitted and why? 3 †Look at The Lost Girl text on p. 154 and identify which Existents are introduced by existential there and which are not. How are these others introduced? What appears to be the main