Essays on Kant's Anthropology
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Kant's lectures on anthropology capture him at the height of his intellectual power and at crucial stages in the development of his philosophical system. They are extremely important for advancing our understanding of Kant's conception of anthropology, its development, and the notoriously difficult relationship between it and the critical philosophy. This collection of new essays by some of the leading commentators on Kant offers the first comprehensive assessment on the philosophical importance of this material and is of interest to historians of ideas and political theorists.
contribute another tome toward “science for the school (Wissenschaft f¨ur die Schule)” but rather to promote “enlightenment for common life (Aufkl¨arung f¨urs gemeine Leben)” (Menschenkunde 25: 853). The goal was to produce a “study for the world (Studium f¨ur die Welt)”; and this is explicitly a type of study that “consists not merely in gaining esteem for oneself from guild members of the school but also in extending knowledge beyond the school and trying to expand one’s knowledge toward
empirical character – that must refer at once to the absent causality of a “way of thinking” and to the inescapable chain of natural causality that determines all natural beings absolutely. The content of character – as “designation” – is then displaced in two ways: as a “way of sensing” it ought to refer to the “way of thinking” of an intelligible character – a character that does not “appear” in a doctrine of observation. But precisely because it is analyzed in the context of such a “natural
introduces another layer of deﬁnition for sensibility, this time in terms of aesthetics. However, this is by no means the end of the list of elements that make up his deﬁnition. A further element crucial to the argument of the Critique involves distinguishing sensibility from the understanding. Kant is very careful to insist that this distinction be transcendental and not merely logical, for reasons that become clear in the “Note on the Amphiboly of Concepts of Reﬂection.” Here Kant distinguished
philosophy proposed by Wolff in his German and Latin systems, they nevertheless represented a critical departure from him and from the work of the ﬁrst generation of Wolfﬁan philosophers. Their work may be described as an “aesthetic” revision of Wolff ﬁrst announced by Baumgarten in his Meditationes philosophicae de nonullis et poema pertinentibus (1735). In this text, organised according to the classical rhetorical structure of the “invention,” “disposition,” and “elocution” of a discourse or
articles he published in the 1780s. (5) None of the remaining questions about the origins of the texts justify any fundamental rejection of the unique historical sources that research on the student notes has made available. The information about Kant’s anthropology lectures is sufﬁciently conﬁrmed, given the multiplicity of the notes’ transmission. For volume 25 of the Academy edition seven texts were constructed, which, taken together, allow us to trace a stepwise development of the lecture