Functional Neuroanatomy of Pain (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)
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Pain is an unpleasant but very important biological signal for danger. Nociception is necessary for survival and maintaining the integrity of the organism in a potentially hostile environment. Pain is both a sensory experience and a perceptual metaphor for damage and it is activated by noxious stimuli that act on a complex pain sensory apparatus. However, chronic pain having no more a protective role can become a ruining disease itself, termed "neuropathic pain".
part of the pictures), both rostrally A and caudally B. In the ipsilateral dorsal column nuclei, several labeled neurons are also seen. For orientation, the area postrema (AP) and the nucl. solitarius (Sol) are indicated. Scale bars: 250 µm Fig. 11 (top) In the spinomedullary junction, a single retrogradely labeled neuron is seen in the most caudal contralateral gracile nucleus (Gr) and in the midline nucleus of Bischoff (Bi), respectively. In the spinal cord (left half of the ﬁgure)
nociceptor neurons (Harper and Lawson 1985; Sommer et al. 1985; LaMotte et al. 1991; Willis and Coggeshall 1991; Truong et al. 2004). The neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are similarly distinguished in light and dark cells (Capra and Dessem 1992; Waite and Tracey 1995; Usunoff et al. 1997; Waite and Ashwell 2004). Attempts have been made to classify the two populations of PA neurons further into physiological, anatomical, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical terms (Sommer et al. 1985;
peripheral tissues (Cho et al. 1997), suggesting that by altering the expression and release of trophic factors, the Schwann cells and SG satellite cells may modulate nociceptive signaling. Peripheral axotomy induces a signiﬁcant increase in NGF mRNA in the SG satellite cells, enhancing the pathologic sympathetic sprouting (Zhou et al. 1999). Other satellite cell-derived substances that might have demonstrable effects consistent with enhanced pain include glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor
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