Hitler-Youth, 1922 1945
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During the Nazi regime's swift rise to power, no single target of nazification took higher priority than Germany's young people. Well aware that the Nazi party could only thrive through the support of future generations, Hitler instituted a youth movement, the Hitler Jugend, which indoctrinated the easily malleable students of Germany's schools and universities. Along with its female counterpart in the Bund Deutscher Mädel (The League of German Girls), the Hitler Youth produced thousands of young Germans who were deeply and fanatically indoctrinated into the Nazi racist ideology. This illustrated book outlines the history and development of the Hitler Youth from its origins in 1922 until it was disbanded by the allied powers in 1945. Topics include: early German non-Nazi and religious youth movements which were adapted and absorbed by the Hitler Youth; Baldur von Schirach and other Reich youth leaders; the Hitler Youth's organization, structure, uniforms, ranking system, flags, and regalia; sports and other common training activities; the place and role of women and girls in the Third Reich; the appearance of German youth opposition groups such as the Swing Youth and the Edelweiss Pirates; and the origins, structure, and combat records of the 12th Waffen SS division, which consisted primarily of Hitler Youth members. The book also includes appendices providing a chronology and the Hitler Youth's song "Vorwärts! Vorwärts!" (Forward! Forward!).
“brown shops.” 52 Hitler Youth, 1922–1945 Hitler Jugend’s early dress Hitler Jugend Scharführer HJ Rottenführer (left) and HJ Stammführer (right) 54 Hitler Youth, 1922–1945 HJ Gebietsführer in winter-duty overcoat Hitler Jugend Stabsführer 3. Prelude to War, 1933–1939 Pimpf, Deutsches Jungvolk (junior Hitler Jugend) HJ dark-blue winter uniform 55 56 Hitler Youth, 1922–1945 HJ winter blouse HJ belt buckle 3. Prelude to War, 1933–1939 Junior HJ members wore a uniform
Brandenburger Tor at Berlin before Hitler in his capacity of army supreme commander. May 1 was National Labor Day—taken over from the socialist tradition—with popular feasts emphasizing the Nazi Party’s solidarity with the workers (its “socialist” component) and Hitler’s role in the creation of the welfare state. The second Sunday in May was Mothering Day (originally invented by the ﬂower trade to boost its turnover), during which proliﬁc mothers were rewarded with medals, and young girls
“Today’s ceremony is a symbolic act. It will teach the world that the basic morality of the November 1918 Republic has been destroyed forever. From this pile of ashes will rise the phoenix of a new spirit.” On November 7, 1938, in Paris, a young Jewish-Polish refugee murdered the secretary of the German Embassy. As retaliation, the Nazis ordered a night of terror in Germany, the so-called Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) on 9 November 1938. Initiated and coordinated by propaganda minister
cleaning. The Mantel (overcoat) was a standard pattern throughout the German army. It was worn by NSDAP members, SS men, Waffen SS soldiers, army soldiers, NCOs and others with only detail differences to account for rank and insignia. In style the Mantel was a very long double-breasted garment reaching to the wearer’s calves. Mostly ﬁeld-gray in color, it had two rows of six gray metal buttons (gilded for generals), deep turned back cuffs and two slash side pock- ets. The Mantel had to be
crisis dividing the leadership into “conservative” Right and “progressive” Left. At the beginning of the First World War (1914–1918), an immense wave of patriotic and national enthusiasm rose within certain circles of the youth organization. But gradually as the conﬂict dragged on, it caused disappointment and even rejection. The war gravely affected the fortunes of the movement. Many of its Member of the Wandervogel movement 1. Beginnings to 1923 leaders and members—some of whom did not