Introduction to Advanced Food Process Engineering
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Food materials are processed prior to their consumption using different processing technologies that improve their shelf life and maintain their physicochemical, biological, and sensory qualities. Introduction to Advanced Food Process Engineering provides a general reference on various aspects of processing, packaging, storage, and quality control and assessment systems, describing the basic principles and major applications of emerging food processing technologies.
The book is divided into three sections, systematically examining processes from different areas of food process engineering.
Section I covers a wide range of advanced food processing technologies including osmo-concentration of fruits and vegetables, membrane technology, nonthermal processing, emerging drying technologies, CA and MA storage of fruits and vegetables, nanotechnology in food processing, and computational fluid dynamics modeling in food processing.
Section II describes food safety and various non-destructive quality assessment systems using machine vision systems, vibrational spectroscopy, biosensors, and chemosensors.
Section III explores waste management, by-product utilization, and energy conservation in food processing industry. With an emphasis on novel food processes, each chapter contains case studies and examples to illustrate state-of-the-art applications of the technologies discussed.
slices dried by MVD were slightly lighter and yellower than that of freeze-dried samples. Li et al. (2007); Cui et al. (2003) • MVD–hot air drying gave similar flavor or pungency, color, texture, and rehydration ratio as FD garlic slices but better than hot air drying. Mushrooms • Drying rate of microwave vacuum drying of mushroom is better than hot air drying but slightly lower than microwave convective drying. Sutar and Prasad (2007) • Rehydration ratio and color of dried mushrooms in
Microfiltration Membrane Process Hydrostatic pressure concentration gradient Electrical potential gradient Concentration gradient Hydrostatic pressure difference 20 to 100 bar Hydrostatic pressure difference 0.5 to 5 bar Hydrostatic pressure difference 0.1 to 1 bar Driving Force Table 4.2 Various Membrane Processes and Their Applications Solubility, diffusion Electrical charge of particle and size Diffusion in convention-free layer Solution diffusion mechanism Sieving mechanism
processes, such as ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Because the flux rate in RO or UF processes is inversely proportional to the thickness of the actual barrier layer, asymmetric membranes exhibit much higher flux rates than symmetric structures of comparable thickness. In addition to a higher flux rate, asymmetric membranes retain all rejected materials at the membrane surface where they can be removed by the shear forces applied by the feed solution moving parallel to the membrane
alternative process compared to the batch one. This has been achieved industrially, so far, only in a semi-continuous mode. Pumpable products can be pumped in and out of the processing vessel through special high-pressure transfer valves and isolators. To Table 5.1 Compression Energy Contained in High-Pressure Vessels Filled with Water at 400 kPa Internal vessel volume (L) Energy (kJ) 10 50 100 250 1000 192 960 1920 4800 19,200 160 ◾ Introduction to Advanced Food Processing
2°C). Texture was investigated using a texture analyzer. HPP samples showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher hardness values than untreated ones. Increased hardness was obtained with increased pressure intensity. The effect of high-pressure on hardness may be explained by myofibrillar protein denaturation and aggregation. This also led to increased whiteness in treated samples (Figure 5.10). Highpressure-induced denaturation of myosin led to the formation of structures that contained hydrogen