Introduction to Telecommunications Network Engineering, Second Edition
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Executive or sales managers in networking companies, data communications engineers and telecommunications professionals must all have a thorough working knowledge of the ever-growing and interrelated array of telecom and data communications technologies. From protocols and operation of the Internet (IP, TCP, HTTP) and its access systems such as ADSL and GSM to the basics of transmission and switching, this resource delivers an introduction to a broad range of networking technologies, explaining the networking essentials you need to know to be a successful networking professional. The text also explores possible future developments in optical, wireless and digital broadcast communications.
and network configuration. 18.104.22.168 Numbering Plan The global rules for the highest-level numbering, country codes, and overall numbering (maximum length and so on) are given by ITU-T. The national telecommunications authority coordinates the national numbering plan. It defines, for example, trunk or area codes and operator prefixes used inside the country. It also defines nationwide service numbers (e.g., emergency numbers). These service numbers are defined to be the same wherever the call is
principle, we could implement all intelligence in the SCP and its database could store all the routing information. This would require heavy signaling between the switching points and the SCP. In practice, the services that do not require a centralized database are implemented in switching points to reduce the load on the SCP and the signaling connections between SCP and SSPs. 56 Introduction to Telecommunications Network Engineering Some examples of IN services follow: • Universal access
continuously measured and traffic demand in the future is estimated. Then, based on these estimates, the capacity of the network can be increased before severe problems occur. An important capacity planning method is based on theoretical analyses of capacity demand and introduction to these calculations is given next. 2.12.1 Grade of Service How happy subscribers are depends on the grade of service (GoS, availability or quality of the service) they receive. The GoS depends on the network
digital milliwatt Adjust to 0 dBm PCMCoder 0 dB Digital 0 dB 0 dBm0 –11 dBm Analog PCMCoder 11 dB 0 dBm0 –4 dBm –4 dB Digital Figure 3.23 Digital milliwatt. is +3.14 dBm0 (1-kHz sine wave) and the higher level signal is distorted. Note that 0 dBm0 is only a reference level for testing and measurement purposes and the actual average level of speech in an analog speech channel is of the order of –15 dBm. Measuring systems that generate a bit sequence of the digital milliwatt are used for
similar pulse shapes are in use and typically a 1.5 to 2 times wider bandwidth is needed. 4.3.2 Symbol Rate and Bit Rate In digital communications a set of discrete symbols is employed. Binary systems have only two values represented by binary digits 1 and 0. In the previous section we found that the fundamental limit of the symbol rate is twice the bandwidth of the channel. With the help of the symbols with multiple values the data rate, in bits per second, can be increased. As an example,