Linguistic Minorities and Modernity: A Sociolinguistic Ethnography, Second Edition (Advances in Sociolinguistics)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The subject of this book is linguistic minorities, and how language is used by speakers of languages which are not the main language of communication. This is a core topic for sociolinguists, who examine how language is actually used within a given context. Globalization, migration, and the erosion of nationhood is creating far more linguistic minorities as society becomes increasingly pluralistic. One of the major sites of contact between languages is the school, and this book focuses on linguistic interaction within this educational context. Through a careful examination of the language practices in the daily life of a school, Monica Heller explores issues such as changing language policy, bilingualism, identity, power, ideology and gender from the point of view of the minority speaker. In so doing she provdies a fresh new insight into this important area of sociolinguistics. Linguistic Minorities and Modernity is written in an accessible and lively narrative style, and uses real-life examples and case studies to illustrate the discussions. The text has been revised throughout, and includes a new introduction by the author. The book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology.
over the years; we tape-recorded an average of six each (minimum four, maximum eight) for the six classes we observed during the first year (1991-92). We also interviewed most of the students in each of the Français classes, to get a sense of how they felt about the class, of their own sociolinguistic history and repertoire, of their ambitions, and their feelings about being at Champlain. In 1994, we also tape-recorded four English as a Second Language classes, and student presentations in
elsewhere). I have documented the efforts of the late 1970s and early 1980s elsewhere (see Chapter 2; and Heller 1994a, b). The 1990s saw a new round of efforts, cast in a slightly different spirit. While earlier initiatives focused on specific programmes for students who came to school without the knowledge of the kind of French that school expected of them, and/or of the means to display that knowledge, the initiatives of the 1990s were aimed at supporting the school itself as a monolingual
Lambert, but made popular in francophone minority circles by Rodrigue Landry (cf. Landry 1982 for an early, but fairly definitive, formulation). Landry argues that there are two ways to become bilingual: through subtractive bilingualism, in which one language replaces the other in an individual's or a community's repertoire; and additive bilingualism, in which one language is added to, but does not displace the other. Landry further argues, at least for the Canadian francophone case, that
variety of positions on this ground. It first manifested itself through a nationalism based on the association of language, nation and religion, in an explicit rejection of Revolutionary values. The French Canadian nation was tied not to specific geographical territory, but rather to an ideological and social one. It survived by virtue of socioeconomic and political marginalization, supported by its own institutions, the most important of which was the Catholic Church. And yet, from the beginning
II This page intentionally left blank 4 Being bilingual Playing the game The bell rings. It is time for Français avancé. The students in Martine's class come downstairs from their other advanced-level courses, laughing and chatting in English, for the most part. The occasional new arrival from Quebec or France tags along, slightly mystified by all this talk in English. The students arrive on time and take their places in their assigned seats. They sit in rows facing the blackboard, where