Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English
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* Over 350 tables and graphs show the frequency of constructions in different contexts, from conversation to fiction to academic prose * Entirely corpus-based with 6000 authentic examples from the 40 million-word Longman Spoken and Written English Corpus * Suggests the reasons why we choose a particular structure in a particular context * Compares British and American spoken and written English Areas covered include basic grammar: description and distribution, key word classes and their phrases and complex structures. Each area is subdivided into more detailed content.
pronominal reference, i.e. between the number of the verb form followed by the subject and the number of pronouns and determiners co-referent with the subject. Discrepancies occur, however, with indefinite pronouns as subject 1 and with collective nouns 2: 1 Everybody's doing what they think they're supposed to do. ( F I C T ) 2 Her own family has suffered the anguish of repossession, and her personal story of how her local Liberal Democrat-controlled council helped them made her the winner in
sprinkling of strip of trace of whit of 251 chocolate, meat; concrete, gold, rock; data, text, time cards, chess, go4 tennis corn, dust, salt, sand; doubt, sense clothing, equipment; information, news bread clay, coal, plutonium, soil; butter, cheese, fat, meat cake, chicken, toast; chalk, land, wood; advice, m'dence clippers, glasses, pants, pliers, Mamas, tweezers bacon material, paper; hope, information cardboard, iron, paper, plastic; flame, water bread, ham, pie glass, light dirt, paint;
more detailed descriptions of the major word classes and their phrases (Chapter 4 on the basic noun phrase; Chapters 5 and 6 on verbs and the verb phrase; Chapter 7 on adjectives, adverbs, and their phrases). Section D tackles more complex structures (Chapter 8 on the complex noun phrase; Chapter 9 on verb and adjective complementation; Chapter 10 o n adverbials). However, despite the conventional labels, the actual content of these chapters departs radically from previous grammars. In
and is generally used as a clause-level connector. kr I n academic prose, and is more typically used as a phrase-level connector. - Figure 2.3 Distribution of coordinators across registers CONV FlCT NEWS Figure 2.4 Percentage use of and as phraselevel V. clause-level connector ACAD phrase-leveland clause-level and 82 W O R D A N D P H R A S E G R A M M A R Survey of function words 83 with the exception of but, the frequency of all coordinators is relatively low in conversation, while
alphabetically tend to be those that, when so written, have relatively short written forms. Numbers such as nineteen, thirty-five, o r seven hundred and eighty-two require more effort to write than six o r forty, and a principle of psychological ease favours the digit versions. The distribution of the numerals in the registers and in relation to other kinds of determiners is discussed further in 22.214.171.124. 2.4.14 Major function word classes: distribution Although it is often said that function