Nutrition and Cancer Prevention (Nutrition and Disease Prevention)
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Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 35 percent of cancers are potentially avoidable by nutritional modification. These modifications include strategies such as caloric restriction and limitation of specific macro-nutrient groups. However, recent research indicates that what you eat may well be just as important as what you shun when it comes to avoiding cancer, especially colon, breast, and prostate cancers, which have become epidemic in the Western hemisphere.
Nutrition and Cancer Prevention brings together the top experts in nutritive health who present significant evidence that specific dietary micronutrients have the potential to play a role in resisting cancer, modulating its development, or reducing tumor metastasis. As a way of introduction, the book updates the descriptive epidemiology of the major cancers of the Western world, and then discusses the likely mechanisms of action that occur when certain essential nutrients become diet staples. The text moves on to explore the scientific evidence, looking at the various properties of each class of micronutrient, chapter by chapter.
These classes include vitamins; minerals, particularly calcium and selenium; phytosterols and polyphenols, which are found in soy and green tea; isothiocyanates found in broccoli, kale, and other cruciferous vegetables; and specialized dietary lipids, including omega-3 fatty acids, linoleic acid, and sphingolipids. The book also dedicates chapters to the roles that obesity and excessive alcohol consumption play in cancer development.
“…we can hope to utilize nutritional interventions to slow the progression of tumor development in the intraepithelial hyperplasia phase before tumor size becomes large enough for diagnosis and probability of metastasis increases. Opportunity exists to stretch this prevention phase so that symptom-free life of the future patient with cancer is prolonged.”
--from Chapter 2, How Dietary Components Protect from Cancer, Diane M. Harris and Vay Liang W. Go
Partial List of Bioactive Food Components with Cancer-Preventive
Properties That Are Detailed in This Volume and Their Primary Food
bioavailability and distribution of each constituent in the various cellular and tissue compartments.15 Thus, bioactive dietary components work in a dynamic, 32 Nutrition and Cancer Prevention constantly changing milieu in vivo, and defining the interactions between these factors over time is a challenge.9 Thus, because of the difficulty of studying the effects of groups of compounds, researchers tend to take a reductionist approach using one phytochemical to test in an assay system against
biologically active isothiocyanates (ITC). Some naturally occurring forms of this phytochemical include 2-phenethyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, and sulforaphanes.62 ITCs are known to induce expression of Phase I and Phase II enzymes and, to a lesser extent, also directly inhibit the P450s; the effect is dependent on the individual ITC. However, in animal models and cell culture systems, combinations of ITC confer protection against genotoxic How Dietary Components Protect from Cancer
...............................................................................................86 References ...........................................................................................................86 75 76 Nutrition and Cancer Prevention ABSTRACT Vitamin A deficiency has been known as a risk factor for various cancers, such as stomach cancer. Because long-term administration of vitamin A is practically difficult due to its hepatic toxicity, vitamin A analogs have been
developed and applied for cancer prevention in clinical trials. Provitamin A carotenoids, which are widely distributed in vegetables and fruits, are also important nutritional factors as the source of vitamin A. These help to maintain our healthy condition, including risk reduction of cancer development. We should also pay attention to natural carotenoids other than provitamin A carotenoids, some of which were proved to have very potent anticarcinogenic activity. For example, lycopene is a very
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