Pain: Psychological Perspectives
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This invaluable resource presents a state-of-the-art account of the psychology of pain from leading researchers. It features contributions from clinical, social, and biopsychological perspectives, the latest theories of pain, as well as basic processes and applied issues. The book opens with an introduction to the history of pain theory and the epidemiology of pain. It then explores theoretical work, including the gate control theory/neuromatrix model, as well as biopsychosocial, cognitive/behavioral, and psychodynamic perspectives. Issues, such as the link between psychophysiological processes and consciousness and the communication of pain are examined. Pain over the life span, ethno-cultural, and individual differences are the focus of the next three chapters.
Pain: Psychological Perspectives addresses current clinical issues:
* pain assessment and acute and chronic pain interventions;
* the unavailability of psychological interventions for chronic pain in a number of settings, the use of self-report, and issues related to the implementation of certain biomedical interventions; and
* the latest ethical standards and the theories.
Intended for practitioners, researchers, and students involved with the study of pain in fields such as clinical and health psychology, this book will also appeal to physicians, nurses, and physiotherapists. Pain is ideal for advanced courses on the psychology of pain, pain management, and related courses that address this topic.
Kerckhoffs-Hanssen, & Kole-Snidjers, 2002). TOWARD AN INTEGRATED DIATHESIS–STRESS MODEL Our presentation of the various faces of pain shows, to a large degree, a developmental progression from the simplistic notions of somatogenic and psychogenic causation through to the increasingly elaborate yet parsimonious postulates of the contemporary multidimensional, biopsychosocial approaches. In scanning the essential elements of the various models considered under the rubric of “biopsychosocial,”
unconscious individual, pain cannot. Like other phenomena of consciousness, pain is an emergent product of complex, distributed activity within the brain. It is not a signal that “enters” consciousness, but rather an aspect of the moment-to-moment construction of consciousness, which comprises awareness of both the external and internal, or somatic, environment. Put succinctly, pain is a complex, consciousness-dependent, unpleasant somatic experience with cognitive and emotional as well as
Aghajanian, 1974; Morilak, Fornal, & Jacobs, 1987; Stone, 1975; Svensson, 1987). Notably, this does not require cognitively mediated attentional control because it occurs in anesthetized animals. Foote, Bloom, and Aston-Jones (1983) reported that slow, tonic spontaneous activity at the locus in rats changed under anesthesia in response to noxious stimulation. Experimentally induced phasic LC activation produces alarm and apparent fear in primates (Redmond & Huang, 1979), and lesions of the LC
and tissue injury because an open wound normally invites infection. Viewed broadly, sickness is an unpleasant motivational state that promotes recuperation. These considerations suggest that feeling sick is a part of the brain’s defense against microbial invasion. Tissue trauma can provoke it, and thus it tends to accompany the experience of pain. Obviously, chronic sickness in the absence of definable injury of pathology serves no biological purpose. The role of the sickness response in chronic
relationship between the 104 HADJISTAVROPOULOS, CRAIG, FUCHS-LACELLE person in pain and the other family member has the potential to have an impact on both pain and pain-related disability. The operant model of chronic pain emphasizes the potential of social reinforcement to perpetuate pain and disability (Block, Kremer, & Gaylor, 1980a; Fordyce, 1976). This model has been supported by studies that demonstrated a relationship between pain-relevant interactions, particularly solicitous