Peace, They Say: A History of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Most Famous and Controversial Prize in the World
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It also presents a parade of interesting people—more than a hundred laureates, not a dullard in the bunch. Some of these laureates have been historic statesmen, such as Roosevelt (Teddy) and Mandela. Some have been heroes or saints, such as Martin Luther King and Mother Teresa. Some belong in other categories—where would you place Arafat? Controversies also swirl around the awards to Kissinger, Gorbachev, Gore, and Obama, to name just a handful.
Probably no figure in this book is more interesting than a non-laureate: Alfred Nobel, the Swedish scientist and entrepreneur who started the prizes. The book also addresses “missing laureates,” people who did not win the peace prize but might have, or should have (Gandhi?).
Peace, They Say is enlightening and enriching, and sometimes even fun. It has its opinions, but it also provides what is necessary for readers to form their own opinions. What is peace, anyway? All these people who have been crowned “champions of peace,” and the world’s foremost—should they have been? Such is the stuff this book is made on.
president in 1996: receiving a shocking 0.5 percent of the vote. He made an ad for Louis Vuitton, the luxury Paris fashion house. The ad—a print ad—showed him being driven in a limo past the remains of the Berlin Wall. In 2008, he announced a new political party, the Independent Democratic Party of Russia. And he had long had an environmental organization: Green Cross International. What Nobel laureate is complete without environmental activism? A thorny question, for all these years, has been,
thought it advantageous to say to the West. “Arafat would condemn operations by day while at night he would do honorable things,” said Dahlan—and by “honorable things,” he meant the planning and approving of the very terror operations he condemned “by day.” Many other former Arafat lieutenants have testified to Arafat’s consistency in terror. This particular Nobelist died in 2004. Rabin was murdered by an Israeli extremist in 1995—murdered at a peace rally. Like Sadat, it was widely said, he paid
(some version of), “Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius”—Start naming names, and you’re bound to leave someone out. At any rate, I thank my host of helpers for what they have made possible. LIST OF NOBEL PEACE LAUREATES 1901 Henry Dunant and Frédéric Passy 1902Elie Ducommun and Charles Albert Gobat 1903Randal Cremer 1904The Institute of International Law 1905Bertha von Suttner 1906Theodore Roosevelt 1907Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault 1908Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer
1931Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler 1933Norman Angell 1934Arthur Henderson 1935Carl von Ossietzky 1936Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937Robert Cecil 1938The Nansen International Office for Refugees 1944The International Committee of the Red Cross Cordell Hull 1946Emily Greene Balch and John R. Mott 1947The Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee 1949John Boyd Orr 1950Ralph Bunche 1951Léon Jouhaux 1952Albert Schweitzer 1953George C. Marshall 1954The Office of the U.N.
191–96; as chemist, 191–92, 194; and “insult from Norway,” 194, 410; Lenin Peace Prize, 159, 195; Lomonosov Medal, 195; on nuclear testing, 192; on Russell-Einstein Manifesto, 312; on Vietnam War, 218 Pavarotti, Luciano, 182 Pavlova, Anna, 112 Payá, Oswaldo, 227 Peace Corps, 284 PeaceJam, 335–38 Peacekeeper missile, 98 peace sign, 94, 205–8 Peace Summit Award, 334–35 Peace: The Biography of a Symbol (Kolsbun), 206 Pearson, Lester Bowles (Mike), 182–84, 272, 286 Peer Gynt, 29 Peirce,