Pharmacology of Ocular Therapeutics
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This book comprises an integrated review of ocular therapeutics across all relevant fields. It addresses the real-world requirements of ophthalmologists, pharmacists and optometrists, as observed through working alongside these practitioners for two decades. Knowledge surrounding agents used in ophthalmic practice has, historically, been scattered. The book facilitates understanding of ocular drug therapy by compiling all key aspects of the pharmacology, toxicology, pharmaceutical science, ocular biochemistry and cell biology of these agents.
Chapters detail drug transfer across barriers, systemic toxicity of topically applied drugs, autonomic drugs used for diagnostics, as well as anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, glaucoma and antimicrobial therapies, and avenues for the development of new ocular drugs. Applications of extemporaneously prepared formulations are described to inform day-to-day clinical practice. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in tear substitutes, ocular drug delivery systems, stem cell therapy, pharmacogenomics and antiangiogenic ocular chemotherapy are also explored. The book also provides insights from drugs of herbal origin, and a historical perspective on drugs for ocular use.
Practicing and resident ophthalmologists, optometrists, pharmacists, nursing professionals, scholars in ocular drug research and students will equally benefit from this comprehensive guide.
Currently it is a prototype drug against which all newly developed β-blockers are compared for the reduction in IOP in clinical trials of glaucoma. It does not have any significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity but does possess a relatively high degree of lipid solubility. N. Halder et al. 176 Mechanism of Action Aqueous humor production governs by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptormediated c-AMP-PKA pathway.
blockers (Nathanson 1981). Beta-blockers are a class of drugs that are 20 R.K. Bhardwaj developed earlier for the management of cardiac arrhythmias; however, they have shown to reduce IOP by reducing aqueous humor formation (Nathanson 1981). They act by blocking adrenergic β-receptor from activation of adenylyl cyclase and cAMP formation to regulate aqueous humor formation in the ciliary process (Nathanson 1981). Timolol, a beta-blocker, has been used to treat open-angle and occasionally
neural retinal, the BRB also carries out the efflux transport of harmful substances like neurotransmitter metabolites, toxins, and xenobiotics (Cunha-Vaz and Maurice 1967). 46 J. Cunha-Vaz et al. Members of the family of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) mediate the Na + -independent transport of a wide range of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salts, organic dyes, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic oligopeptides, numerous drugs, and other xenobiotic
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