Philosophy of Justice
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
This book presents surveys of significant trends in contemporary philosophy. Contributing authors explore themes relating to justice including natural rights, equality, freedom, democracy, morality and cultural traditions. Key movements and thinkers are considered, ranging from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman and Christian traditions to the development of Muslim law, Enlightenment perspectives and beyond.
Authors discuss important works, including those of Aristotle, Ibn Khaldun, John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Mary Wollstonecraft. Readers are also invited to examine Hegel and the foundation of right, Karl Marx as a utopian socialist and the works of Paul Ricœur, amongst the wealth of perspectives presented in this book.
Through these chapters, readers are able to explore the relationship of the state to justice and consider the rights of the individual and the role of law. Contributions presented here discuss concepts including Sharia law, freedom in the community and Libertarian Anarchism. Readers may follow accounts of justice in the Scottish Enlightenment and consider fairness, social justice and the concept of injustice.
The surveys presented here show different approaches and a variety of interpretations. Each contribution has its own bibliography.
loyalty, etc.), and is part of ‘universal’ justice. Particular justice is divided into two kinds: distributive justice (dianemētikon dikaion) and corrective (or rectificatory or commutative) justice (diorthōtikon dikaion). Distributive justice operates in a society and allocates benefits and burdens fairly, while rectificatory justice operates between two parties and either maintains or restores a balance (NE V.2).3 My analysis will mainly focus on the discussion of the Aristotelian conception of
the point that they think they are professing one which is absolute and complete, fail to mention the ‘real cardinal factor’, as he calls it. The cardinal factor in this case is that the end of the city is the common promotion of a good quality of life and not only mere life. As far as economic and social goods are concerned, Aristotle places the relative proportional equality, desert (kat’ axian), as the distributive criterion for the person who lives “in the world as we know it” (Pol
lengthy civil war of religion. The fight between the Huguenots (the French Calvinists) and the Catholics split France from top to bottom, and intense military conflicts broke out both within and among the various regions, which threatened to destroy every unitary state power, every central and centralized authority. One event remains especially alive in our memory, the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Eve in 1572, when between 4,000 and 5,000 Protestants were murdered in Paris (by comparison:
orators.” But the testimonies have no evidentiary value in themselves. Grotius makes it clear that one should not rely on these authors without discrimination, since they were accustomed to serve their sect, subject or particular cause (Grotius 1993: I, iii, V, 6 and Proleg. 40). Rather, when many at different times and in different places say the same thing, then it appears that a universal cause stands behind the agreed norm in question (Grotius 1993: Proleg. 40 and I, i, XII, 1). Such a
come to love humbleness and servitude.”27 When this condition continues over generations, the dynasty progresses towards weakness and senility. A second factor in the process of decline is the use of money, again for luxuries. On the one hand, private expectations lead the poor among them to perish and the spendthrifts to squander their incomes. People become too weak to keep their own affairs going. On the other hand, the dynasty’s spending of money on luxury depletes the treasury and reduces