Preference Pollution: How Markets Create the Desires We Dislike (Economics, Cognition, and Society)
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that an agent “maximizes” is metaphysical in nature, and “Metaphysical statements can be false but we may never know because they are the assumptions of a research program which are deliberately put beyond question.”18 Multiple-selves models clearly do reject the metaphysical statement that “an agent maximizes.” Part of the agent may do so but not an agent de‹ned in any conventional sense. Multiple-utility models are likewise forced to reject this most basic core assumption of conventional
and Schor note another problem with the previous studies. None attempted to adjust for the business cycle in estimating changes in the allocation of time, an omission that can seriously distort the sorts of trends that it was Schor’s original purpose to uncover. Clearly, there are far more people working fewer hours than they would wish during downturns in the economy than during upturns. If a later year in a study happens to be a recessionary year, it would easily distort the upward trend in
carry out. Those who came through and offered important comments include Robert Goldfarb, Doug Porpora, Tim Brennan, Tyler Cowen, and Steven Worland, and I wish to thank them all. In the incubation stage of developing ideas the loneliness can at times be excruciating. There are several scholars who during the 1980s expressed enough interest or offered enough advice to keep the project moving and by so doing indirectly helped to make this book a reality. I wish to thank, in particular, Lynn
work, one contributing to lower density, the other to higher density. Falling transportation costs have raised the demand for privacy, while the rise in population has put upward pressure on the relatively ‹xed resource, land. Apparently this third factor has not been enough to offset the ‹rst two since by all accounts square footage of housing and lot size continue to rise. 6. For a development of this theme, see Lesieur 1977, 1ff. 7. As de‹ned on the opening page of the introductory chapter,
Tyler. 1989. “Are All Tastes Constant and Identical? A Critique of Stigler and Becker.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 11:127–35. ———. 1991. “Self-Constraint versus Self-Liberation.” Ethics 101:360–73. ———. 1993. “The Scope and Limits of Preference Sovereignty.” Economics and Philosophy 9:253–69. ———. 1998. In Praise of Commercial Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Cox, Harvey. 1999. “Notes and Comments: The Market as God.” Atlantic Monthly, March, 18–23. Cross, Gary.