Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches
John W. Creswell
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"Creswell does an excellent job categorizing the various qualitative methods into five approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study...The author has expanded on and updated the information he presented in the first edition of the book (Creswell, 1998), including discussion of the various schools of thought that have developed among qualitative researchers since the mid 1990's...Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among five approaches is a highly informative book; researchers will likely return again and against to the book as they expand their comfort zone within qualitative research."
—Peggy M. Delmas, University of Alabama
“Creswell has produced an even more outstanding and valuable text for qualitative research than the First Edition.”
—Edith King, University of Denver
Like the bestselling First Edition, this new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, author John W. Creswell compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and strategies for writing introductions to studies, collecting data, analyzing data, writing a narrative, and verifying results.
phase constitutes the "lessons learned:: from the case. Challenges One of the challenges inherent in qualltatiw case study dewlopment is that the researcher must identify his or her case. I can pose no clear sol uti on to this challenge. The case study researcher must decide which bounded system to study, recognizing that several might be possible candidates for 76 Qua[itattve Inquiry and Research De.sl_gn this selection and realizing that either rhe cas.e itself or an is..sue, \'thich a
academic change. Sociology of Educatiou, 51_. 101-112. CreS\'i.'ell.]. \X/., & Bro,,TI, 1.-L L. (1992). How chairpersons enbance facu!ty research: A grounded theory S-tudy. Ret-'ier.v of Higher Educatiun, 16(1}, 41-62. Kearney, .}.J. H., ).·iurphy, S.) & Rosenbaum, 1\.-1. (1994_). ;...fothering on crack cocaine A grounded theor~· anal}'Sis. Social Sciena: Medicine~ 381)}, 351-361. Five Different Qualitative Studies 99 Leiperr, B. D., & Remrer, L (2005). De\'eloping resitience: Hm't' -..vomen
a qualitative study, and some may be discarded (Wolcott, 1994bi. Researchers develop a short list of tentative codes. (e.g., 12 or so) rhat match text segments, regardless of the length of the database. Beginning res.earchers tend to develop elaborate lists of code~s when they revie,_.., their databases. I proceed differently. I begin with a short list, "lean coding" I call it-five or .s.ix categories \'i.•ith shorthand labels or codes-and then I expand the categories as I comin ue to revie'Y and
O\\"TI imerpretatl on based on the cuirural, social, gender, das.s~ and personal politics. that \Ve bring to research. AH 'i.'i:ri ttng is u positioned" and v;:ithin a 5-tance. All researchers shape the ..,.-niting that emerges, and qualitative researchers need to accept this interpretation and be open about ir in their writings. According to Richardson (1994), the be.st \Vriting acknowledges its. own "undecidability"' forthri gh dy_, rhat aH writing has "subtex-rs" that "situate"' or
represems a moment in .an individual's. life; and e-pis.odes or relived epiphanies, wbich involve reliving the experience. Czarnia ws.k a (20 04) introduces the key element -of the plot or the e-mpbtmem, a means of introducing structure that allm>,.·s making s.ense of the events reported. • Themes can be reported in narrative -..•,;riting. Smi;;:h ( 1994) re-commends fmdiog a theme co guide che development of the life w be \O,.'fitten. This. cheme emerges fmm prelirnin ary knmvle-dge or a review