Shadow Warfare: The History of America's Undeclared Wars
Larry Hancock, Stuart Wexler
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Shadow Warfare traces the evolution of these covert operations, detailing the tactics and tools used from the Truman era through those of the contemporary Obama Administrations. It also explores the personalities and careers of many of the most noted shadow warriors of the past sixty years, tracing the decade-long relationship between the CIA and the military.
Shadow Warfare presents a balanced, non-polemic exploration of American secret warfare, detailing its patterns, consequences and collateral damage and presenting its successes as well as failures. Shadow Wars explores why every president from Franklin Roosevelt on, felt compelled to turn to secret, deniable military action. It also delves into the political dynamic of the president’s relationship with Congress and the fact that despite decades of combat, the U.S. Congress has chosen not to exercise its responsibility to declare a single state of war - even for extended and highly visible combat.
have close ties to senior military officers and commanders in Latin American nations. It can also prove valuable for legitimate counterterrorism activities as well as for related missions such as drug interdiction. There has been a long history of establishing those relationships, going back before WWII. The issue is that in recent decades a number of Latin American officers and commanders became deeply involved in wide-scale political warfare within their own countries. Gill’s School of the
http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/mexico/usa/cia_drugs.html 611Ibid. 612Ibid. 613U.S. Department of Justice, “Previous Investigations Concerning Allegations of Contra Drug Trafficking.” http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/9712/ch01p2.htm 614A decade later, in 1996, Pulitzer Prize–winning reporter Gary Webb would begin his “Dark Alliance” series of articles in the San Jose Mercury News. The focus of his work was that CIA-associated Contra figures had helped smuggle cocaine into the U.S., playing
64, 104–125, 236, 359 Tibetan Plateau, 104–105, 108–110, 115 Tibet-Pakistan, 109, 110, 111, 112, 118 Tibet-Taiwan, 115 Timberlake, Clare, 219, 223 Togo, 534 Tokyo, 59 Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 22, 257–259 Tora Bora, 478, 486 Tortuguero, Costa Rica, 211 Trafficante, Santo, Jr., 251 Trujillo, Rafael, 83, 95, 98 Truman, Harry, and administration, 8–11, 16, 19, 28–29, 30–31, 32–33, 35, 36, 38, 41, 44, 54, 57, 62–63, 68, 72, 78–79, 81, 85, 107, 126, 127, 129, 208, 235, 236, 251, 252–253,
stretched thin. At that point a diversion or even a flanking action against its enemy seems highly desirable. Or it may be that a nation or group wishes to frustrate an enemy nation without entering into combat that may escalate into full-scale war. In either instance, if a third-party force—either hostile to a common enemy or already engaged in some sort of insurgency or combat—presents itself, the option of surrogates appears. America benefited from the surrogate strategy at its birth, when
actually carry, but were also an issue for the parachute drops themselves. To solve that challenge, the CIA turned to a very special breed of professionals that it had first used in Korea: “smokejumpers” from Montana and the mountain West. Their experience parachuting into American forest fires had led them to develop a high degree of expertise in steerable chutes and rough-terrain jumping—exactly the expertise required for covertly delivering both agents and cargo into Tibet.167 The air crews