Social Anxiety and Social Phobia in Youth: Characteristics, Assessment, and Psychological Treatment (Series in Anxiety and Related Disorders)
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A great bene?t of being a clinical child psychologist is the opportunity to conduct and review research on fascinating areas of human, youthful behavior. And perhaps no behavior is as central to human existence as social behavior, and the lack thereof. In writing this book, therefore, I have been doubly blessed with the chance to examine seminal works on behaviors that are so critical to the development and quality of life of children. This book covers the major historical aspects, characteristics, asse- ment strategies, and psychological treatment techniques for youths with social anxiety and social phobia. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the related constructs and history of social phobia. Chapters 2 and 3 provide a summary of the characteristics and etiological variables that pertain most to youths with social anxiety and social phobia. Chapters 4 and 5 provide an overview of research- and clinically-based assessment strategies and recommendations for this population. Chapters 6–9 provide a description of treatment techniques that are most relevant and empirically supported for youths with social anxiety and social phobia. Chapter 10 covers issues regarding general and relapse prevention as well as dif?cult cases and future directions.
system activity, right frontal activation, and right frontal electroencephalograph asymmetry (Fox, Henderson, Rubin, Calkins, & Schmidt, 2001; Kagan et al., 1988; 2001; McManis, Kagan, Snidman, & Woodward, 2002). However, the physiological study of youths with social phobia remains in its infancy. GENERALIZED PSYCHOLOGICAL VULNERABILITIES Recall that generalized psychological vulnerabilities for mental disorder are those factors that generally pervade a person’s life as he or she develops. With
viewed shyness along a social approach-social avoidance conﬂict spectrum. In this conceptualization, shy, socially reticent children want to engage in social interactions with peers but are unsuccessful at doing so, perhaps because of high social anxiety about negative evaluation. On the other hand, shy, socially avoidant children want to withdraw from social interactions and may even be depressed. These children may also be thought of as conﬂicted (i.e., high approach-high avoidance) and
anxiety, other mental, or no other mental disorders. The authors concluded that the SPAI could be used as a valid measure of social anxiety in adolescents. Other researchers also found the SPAI to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing Spanish adolescents (Olivares, Garcia-Lopez, Hidalgo, Turner, & Beidel, 1999). Beidel and her colleagues revamped the SPAI for use with younger children (aged 8–14 years) (SPAI-C) and to measure social phobia in youths as well as social anxiety. The scale
the goal of treatment is not to eradicate social and performance anxiety but to reduce it to manageable proportions without avoidance (e.g., Hope, Heimberg, Juster, & Turk, 2000). In addition, most people cope with social and performance anxiety in appropriate ways, such as calming themselves or “putting aside” or “working through” anxiety to focus on a particular task (e.g., test). Furthermore, some social and performance anxiety could be adaptive in nature, as when inappropriate behavior is
conjunction with response prevention, or ongoing practice of nonavoidant strategies and/or control of compulsive rituals when encountering stressful stimuli (March & Albano, 2002). Parent-Based Contingency Management Procedures Parent-based treatment regarding youths with social anxiety and social phobia generally involves contingency management procedures, or structuring consistent parental consequences for appropriate and inappropriate child behavior (Briesmeister & Schaefer, 1998). For youths