Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics
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This Handbook consolidates authoritative and state-of-the-art information from the large number of disciplines used in experimental fluid mechanics into a readable desk reference book. It comprises four parts covering Experiments in Fluid Mechanics, Measurement of Primary Quantities, Specific Experimental Environments and Techniques, and Analyses and Post-Processing of Data.
The Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics has been prepared for physicists and engineers in research and development in universities, industry and in governmental research institutions or national laboratories. Both experimental methodology and techniques are covered fundamentally and for a wide range of application fields. A generous use of citations directs the reader to additional material on each subject.
the element to be pressurized is simply a cylindrical-section tube and because the time required for a diffusion measurement can be retained within reasonable bounds (about one hour) without a loss of uncertainty [3.215, 216]. 3.6.3 Diffusion Reference Values Thermistor 100 cm3 volume Capillary radii 0.5 1.4 mm Fig. 3.56 Two-bulb cell of van Heijningen et al. [3.212] The interdiffusion coefficient of aqueous solutions of potassium chloride is recommended as the reference standard [3.181]
Department of Mechanical Engineering 3400 N. Charles St. Baltimore, MD 21218, USA e-mail: email@example.com IX X List of Authors Damien Kawakami University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering 10550 Nicollet Ave S. Bloomington, MN 55420, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Eric Lauga Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Mathematics 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA e-mail: email@example.com Saeid Kheirandish Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Institut für Mechanische
poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) melt. It was based on their work that Wagner et al. [1.44–47] adopted the concept of varying tube diameter to show that the work of the stress tensor can be correlated to the change of free energy at the molecular scale [1.7]. The Molecular Stress Function (MSF) Model for Linear Melts. In the molecular stress function (MSF) model of Wagner and coworkers [1.7, 44–52], tube stretch is caused by the squeeze of the surrounding polymer chains, leading to a reduction
parameter the nondimensional variable is often interpreted as a ratio of physical quantities or scales. xScale A Π= . (2.69) xScale B For example, the Reynolds number is often interpreted as a ratio of inertia effects to viscous effects. A fuller discussion of physical interpretation of parameters is given later. The origin of a coordinate system is arbitrary, so position variables always have a natural reference. Sometimes we implicitly include the reference in stating the problem. For example,
all the variables in the original list and produced n − r nondimensional variables. Hence, the Π theorem is satisfied. In nondimensional form the final function is V = f m c /ρc g ec mc ρc 1/3 , ρ ,Φ ρc . (2.76) As intended, variations in g can be used to simulate variations in the explosion strength ec . If it is arranged so that variable occurs in only one Π group, the effect can be assessed by changing not the variable itself, but by changing another variable in that Π group. From a