Syntax: Structure, Meaning, and Function (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
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This book is an introduction to syntactic theory and analysis which can be used for both introductory and advanced courses in theoretical syntax. Offering an alternative to the standard generative view of the subject, it deals with the major issues in syntax with which all theories are concerned. It presents syntactic phenomena from a wide range of languages and introduces students to the major typological issues that syntactic theories must address. A generous number of exercises is included, which provide practice with the concepts introduced in the text and in addition expose the student to in-depth analysis of data from many languages. Each chapter contains suggestions for further reading which encompass work from many theoretical perspectives. A separate teaching guide is available.
bur,an balan yatangu. c. Yar,arjgu cjugumbil balan bangul bin;an. (all possible orders are grammatical) 'The man saw the woman.' The structures that would be assigned to (2.6b) and its English translation are given in figure 2.3. It is not clear that the IC representations are capturing any similar features between the two languages, except for categorial information. Another challenge for IC analysis is clause structure in what Nichols (1986) calls 'head-marking' languages. Dyirbal and English
structure 25 Simple clauses and noun phrases CLAUSE CORE NUCLEUS PERIPHERY CLAUSE CORE John ate PERIPHERY the sandwich in the library NUCLEUS Figure 2.6 Components of the layered structure of the clause A predicate, therefore, refers only to the predicating element, which is a verb, an adjective or a nominal of some sort. The predicate defines a syntactic unit in the structure of the clause, the nucleus. In a clause containing a number of NPs (and PPs), some of them are semantic
argument in the following clause, there must be a pronoun in the clause which refers to it. In That book you put on the table, there cannot be a pronoun referring to the precore slot NP, as the ungrammaticality of *That book you put it on the table shows. Example (2.14d) shows that this initial phrase cannot be in the precore slot, because there is a WHword in the precore slot in the sentence; hence the position of the initial phrase is distinct from the precore slot. This position, which will be
Chelsu, I gave a book [to him] at school.' (7) Mangalean buku guru i tuimana. give book teacher DET to 3sg 'The teacher is giving a book to him.' TobaBatak (Indonesia) 2 Explain why only some of the sequences of operators in the Thai sentences in (2) and (3) are possible. Does the syntactic theory proposed in the text predict these facts? Examples of each operator are given in (1). (Data from Suda Rangkupan.) [section 2.2.3] (1) a. Khawca? kinkhaaw. 3sg FUT eat rice 'He will eat rice', or 'He
example of an argument-marking preposition is to with give. The constituent projection of Robin gave theflowersto Pat is given infigure4.3. As in figure 2.20b, the preposition to is not represented as a predicate but rather as simply marking the third argument of give. The semantics of its argument is entirely a function of the semantics of the verb in the nucleus. Argument-adjunct prepositions present the interesting intermediate case between argument-marking and adjunct prepositions; they are