The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History
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With 150 accessible articles written by more than 130 leading experts, this essential reference provides authoritative introductions to some of the most important and talked-about topics in American history and politics, from the founding to today. Abridged from the acclaimed Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History, this is the only single-volume encyclopedia that provides comprehensive coverage of both the traditional topics of U.S. political history and the broader forces that shape American politics--including economics, religion, social movements, race, class, and gender. Fully indexed and cross-referenced, each entry provides crucial context, expert analysis, informed perspectives, and suggestions for further reading.
Contributors include Dean Baker, Lewis Gould, Alex Keyssar, James Kloppenberg, Patricia Nelson Limerick, Lisa McGirr, Jack Rakove, Nick Salvatore, Stephen Skowronek, Jeremi Suri, Julian Zelizer, and many more.
- Key political periods, from the founding to today
- Political institutions, major parties, and founding documents
- The broader forces that shape U.S. politics, from economics, religion, and social movements to race, class, and gender
- Ideas, philosophies, and movements
- The political history and influence of geographic regions
voters blamed the president when every former Confederate state except Tennessee rejected the Fourteenth Amendment and when race riots erupted in Memphis and New Orleans. They overwhelmingly elected Republicans in the 1866 congressional elections, giving them a veto- proof congressional majority, yet power remained divided between radicals and moderates. Congress passed the Military Reconstruction Acts and in so doing ushered in a new phase, Congressional Reconstruction, which neither
“deficient” in the way that class has played out in its political history. Rather, with their own appeals to a populist middle class, politicians in the rest of the world may now be catching up to us. See also business and politics; conservatism; labor movement and politics; populism; race and politics; socialism. F u r t h e r Re a di n g . Sven Beckert, Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850–1896, 2001; Lizabeth Cohen, Making a New Deal:
on taxing and spending to stabilize the economy. In the 1960s and 1970s, the modern consumer movement led by activist Ralph Nader focused on health and safety issues. In 1962 Congress passed the Truth in Lending Act to protect credit borrowers and the Truth in Packaging Act to require better labeling, and created the Consumer Protection Safety Commission. Nader’s Unsafe at Any Speed (1965) led to the National Traffic and Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. Nader launched the public interest 137
liberalism. Except for the black activist Jesse Jackson, all major presidential contenders said that past Democratic administrations had ignored the merits of the market, wasted taxpayers’ money, and slighted national defense. As appeals to the working class ebbed, the party cultivated newly influential constituencies and trendy rhetorical motifs. Women seemed an especially promising bloc because the Reagan administration attacked the welfare state and opposed abortion. To exploit the “gender
television networks rejected proposals that required them to provide free time for short “spot” advertisements; some sitting officeholders worried about assisting challengers; and a number of powerful members of Congress, backed by public opinion, blocked proposals for public funding of campaigns. Meanwhile, campaign costs ballooned, a trend carefully tracked by new “public interest” groups such as the Citizen’s Research Foundation and, by the late 1960s, Common Cause. Spending on the