The Intensification of Surveillance: Crime, Terrorism and Warfare in the Information Age
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Our public and private lives are under surveillance as never before. Whether we are shopping with a credit card, walking down the street or emailing a colleague at work, our activities are monitored. Surveillance has become more routine, more integrated and more intrusive. It is vital to ask how and why this should be so, and assess what the consequences are. Since September 11th 2001 surveillance has intensified further. Yet although individuals, groups, governments and states are more closely monitored, our security is not assured. The contributors to this volume explore the vast range of issues related to increased surveillance. What is going on in an area clouded by secrecy from the state and complacent reassurances from corporations? How do we track suspects and combat crime without also eroding our civil liberties and sacrificing our rights to privacy? Does electronic tagging of prisoners work? What are retailers up to with 'lifestyle profiling'? Focusing on these and other issues such as paedophilia, money-laundering, information warfare, cybercrime, and related legislation, this book spotlights benefits and costs of surveillance, and suggests how it is likely to develop in the future. Experts from Europe and America offer an international perspective on what is now a worldwide issue, making this book of interest to a wide range of people including legal practitioners, law enforcement agencies, policymakers and students across the social sciences.
The Intensification of Surveillance Crime, Terrorism and Warfare in the Information Age Edited by Kirstie Ball and Frank Webster Pluto P Press LONDON • STERLING, VIRGINIA First published 2003 by Pluto Press 345 Archway Road, London N6 5AA and 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166–2012, USA www.plutobooks.com Copyright © Kirstie Ball and Frank Webster 2003 The right of the individual contributors to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with
of males between the ages of 18 and about 34. Concomitantly, when these massed forces were put into action, mass casualties were sustained. • Strenuous efforts to plan the war effort as a whole, something that extended from government takeover of industries, such as transport and energy, that were deemed essential to the war effort, through to elaborate and detailed strategies drawn up by high-ranking military commanders who would decide centrally how best to deploy their forces and then direct
the consumption or possession of pornography is not necessarily illegal. The test in the UK and other jurisdictions is whether or not the materials are obscene and deprave the viewer, but there are considerable legal and moral differences as to what the criteria are that enable law enforcers to establish obscenity and depravation (Chatterjee, 2001, p. 78). In Britain, for example, individuals might consume risqué images through the various facets of the mass media that might be considered obscene
Ireland: The Propaganda War (London: Pluto Press) Dandeker, C. (1990) Surveillance, Power and Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press) Danna, A. and Gandy, O. (2002) All That Glitters is Not Gold: Digging Beneath the Surface of Data Mining. Journal of Business Ethics Vol. 40 DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency) (2002) Mission Statement, Information Awareness Office QinetiQ 145 Quaker Penal Affairs Committee 64 racial profiling 18, 20 Red Cross 107 Regulation of Investigatory Power Act 2000 60 Reliance 70, 71 restorative justice 73 Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 101 risk profiling 22 Rule, J. 6–7 Russia, attempted coup (1991) 97 Sagem 145 Saudi Arabia 104 Scheerer, S. 80, 81 Schengen Agreement 48 Schengen Information System, UK 48 Schipol airport 18 Securicor 70 September 11 2001 attacks data mining 27, 34–5 and privacy protection 15, 60–1 responses
QinetiQ 145 Quaker Penal Affairs Committee 64 racial profiling 18, 20 Red Cross 107 Regulation of Investigatory Power Act 2000 60 Reliance 70, 71 restorative justice 73 Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) 101 risk profiling 22 Rule, J. 6–7 Russia, attempted coup (1991) 97 Sagem 145 Saudi Arabia 104 Scheerer, S. 80, 81 Schengen Agreement 48 Schengen Information System, UK 48 Schipol airport 18 Securicor 70 September 11 2001 attacks data mining 27, 34–5 and privacy protection 15, 60–1 responses