The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945 (New Studies in European History)
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This book examines the overlooked topic of the influence of anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic Russian exiles on Nazism. White émigrés contributed politically, financially, militarily, and ideologically to National Socialism. This work refutes the notion that Nazism developed as a peculiarly German phenomenon: it arose primarily from the cooperation between völkisch (nationalist/racist) Germans and vengeful White émigrés. From 1920-1923, Adolf Hitler collaborated with a conspiratorial far right German-White émigré organization, Aufbau (Reconstruction). Aufbau allied with Nazis to overthrow the German government and Bolshevik rule through terrorism and military-paramilitary schemes. This organization's warnings of the monstrous 'Jewish Bolshevik' peril helped to inspire Hitler to launch an invasion of the Soviet Union and to initiate the mass murder of European Jews. This book uses extensive archival materials from Germany and Russia, including recently declassified documents, and will prove invaluable reading for anyone interested in the international roots of National Socialism.
Writer, “The Jewish Question.” He blamed the Jews for perennially forming a “status in statu” (state within the state). He accused them of exhibiting “estrangement and alienation.” He blamed them for believing, “Only one true people exists on the earth, the Jewish one, and . . . although there are others, it is nevertheless necessary to regard them as non-existent.” He lamented that Jews controlled the stock market, capital, credit, and international politics. He warned of them: “Their kingdom is
following the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch.7 Finally, he directed Germany’s rule over formerly Soviet areas in World War II, and he participated in the atrocities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Georg Franz-Willing, Ursprung der Hitlerbewegung 1919–1922 (Preussisch Oldendorf: K. W. Sch¨utz KG, 1974), 198. DB reports from November 11, 1922 and May 22, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 2, 157; opis 4, delo 168, reel 1, 1. “Ukraine und Nationalsozialismus,” Wirtschafts-politische Aufbau-Korrespondenz
had provoked World War I, toppled the Russian, German, and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and unleashed Bolshevism after undermining the existing order through the insidious spread of liberal ideas. German forces promptly destroyed Rollin’s work in 1940 after they occupied France, and the book has remained in obscurity ever since.26 Almost thirty years passed before Walter Laqueur noted the lack of historical research on White e´migr´e contributions to National Socialism in his book Russia and
members had to disburse 10,000 marks to enter the organization and had to contribute 50,000 marks annually. Aufbau’s leaders carefully checked the background of prospective associates and could accept or reject applicants without offering any explanation for their decision. Aufbau’s organizational work was carried out in complete secrecy.74 71 72 73 74 Scheubner-Richter, “Abriss des Lebens- und Bildungsganges von Dr. Max Erwin von ScheubnerRichter,” sent to Walther Nicolai in April 1923, RGVA
fortune from American relatives. The Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade JointStock Company speculated in Hungarian wool production in particular under the premise of tremendous profits.84 Aufbau’s strong economic ties with Hungary helped to unite far rightists in both Germany and Hungary. In late June 1922, Scheubner-Richter, Biskupskii, and PoltavetsOstranitsa, the leader of Aufbau’s Ukrainian faction, traveled to Budapest. Whatever secret agenda they may have followed regarding German Foreign