The Search for Neofascism: The Use and Abuse of Social Science
A. James Gregor
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A study of the informal logic that has governed the half-century of academic writing devoted to what has been generally identified as 'neofascism', together with a careful assessment of those political movements and regimes considered the proper objects of inquiry. The intent of the study is both pedagogical and cautionary. Its central thesis of the work is that terms like 'fascism', 'generic fascism', and 'neofascism' are often used with considerable indifference, applied uniquely to political movements and regimes considered on the 'right' rather than the 'left', intended more often to denigrate rather than inform. The result has been confusion. Within that context some of the most important political movements of our time are considered, including, among others, the Alleanza Nazionale of Italy and the Bharatiya Janata Party of India, both of which have discharged leadership roles in their respective governments: identifying either as 'neofascism' has clear implications for international relations.
Militant Islam Reaches America (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003), pp. 40, 47, 68–9. The term “Islamist” is used to distinguish the radical form of Islam, the subject of the present chapter, that inspires those Muslims who have chosen to employ violence and terror against both the West and Muslims who oppose them. For a discussion of the distinction, see A. G. Noorani, Islam and Jihad: Prejudice Versus Reality (London: Zed, 2002). Robert Spencer, Islam Unveiled: Disturbing Questions About the World’s
131, 139. Ibid., pp. 62, 71. Ibid., pp. 61–2, 117. We are told that the reasons for jihad include “to establish God’s authority in the earth; to arrange human affairs according to the true guidance provided by God; to abolish all the Satanic forces and Satanic systems of life. . . .” Ibid., p. 70.
Maffeo Pantaleoni. They both favored economic liberalism and argued for the reduction of state involvement in specifically economic matters.48 Pantaleoni made very clear his adherence to Fascism, precisely for the reasons Mussolini had early expressed: Italy required rapid economic development; Bolshevism had demonstrated that its efforts to control the stabilization and expansion of the economy through state agencies were a monumental failure; and history afforded ample evidence that
Mussolini, “I nostri postulati: Disciplina di guerra,” Oo, 10, pp. 36–8; “I nostri postulati: Per la storia di una settimana,” Oo, 10, p. 87; “Tutto ai nostri soldati,” Oo, 10, pp. 299– 301; “Un po’ di verita` nel paradosso: I giornali sono necessari?” Oo, 10, pp. 316–19; “Il ‘morale’,” Oo, 11, pp. 132–4. Mussolini, “Tutto ai nostri soldati,” p. 300. Years later, Mussolini elaborated on these principles of population management to Emil Ludwig. He spoke of masses requiring leadership and societies
Caribbean or Central, South, or North America in the Western Hemisphere or in continental Africa. Denied political or social equality, blacks everywhere were burdened by a prevailing sense of inefficacy and inferiority. By 1914, Garvey undertook the organization of the blacks of Jamaica in an association that sought their uplift. Limited to an area and a population that could hardly serve his ultimate vision, Garvey migrated to the United States in 1916, where he found a society in turmoil. After