Turmeric: The genus Curcuma (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles)
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For the last 6000 years turmeric has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to alleviate pain, balance digestion, purify body and mind, clear skin diseases, expel phlegm, and invigorate the blood. Nowadays, this plant has acquired great importance with its anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-Altzheimer, antioxidant, and a variety of other medicinal properties. The need of the hour is to verify and validate the traditional uses by subjecting them to proper experimental studies. To do this effectively there needs to be a single comprehensive source of the knowledge to date.
Turmeric: the genus Curcuma is the first comprehensive monographic treatment on turmeric. It covers all aspects of turmeric including botany, genetic resources, crop improvement, processing, biotechnology, pharmacology, medicinal and traditional uses, and its use as a spice and flavoring. Bringing together the premier experts in the field from India, Japan, UK, and USA, this book offers the most thorough examination of the cultivation, market trends, processing, and products as well as pharmacokinetic and medicinal properties of this highly regarded spice. While Ayurveda has known for millennia that turmeric cleanses the body, modern science has now discovered that it produces glutathione-s-transferase that detoxifies the body and therefore strengthens the liver, heart, and immune system. By comparing traditional uses with modern scientific discoveries, the text provides a complete view of the medicinal value and health benefits of turmeric. Heavily referenced with an exhaustive bibliography at the end of each chapter, the book collects and collates the currently available data on turmeric.
Covering everything from cultivation to medicine, Turmeric: the Genus Curcuma serves as an invaluable reference for those involved with agriculture, marketing, processing or product development, and may function as a catalyst for future research into the health benefits and applications of turmeric.
Boheman Leaf Leaf India India — Continued 7034_book.fm Page 173 Thursday, January 11, 2007 10:29 AM Insect Pests of Turmeric 173 TABLE 7.1 (Continued) List of Insects Recorded on Turmeric Genus/Species M. undecimpustulatus Faust. M. viridanus Fab. Plant Part Affected Leaf Leaf Distribution India India Order: Diptera Family: Tipulidae Libnotes punctipennis Meij Rhizome India Family: Syrphidae Eumerus albifrons Wlk. E. pulcherrimus Bru. Rhizome Rhizome India India Family:
7034_C002.fm Page 41 Thursday, January 25, 2007 2:10 PM Botany and Crop Improvement of Turmeric 41 Renjith et al. (2001) reported in vitro pollination and hybridization between two short duration types VK-70 and VK-76 and reported seed set and seed development. This reduces the breeding time and helps in recombination breeding, which has not been attempted in turmeric earlier. 2.8.2 SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH Turmeric seed germination commences 17 to 26 days after sowing, and
5.0 5.5 8.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 5.5 5.0 5.5 9.0 3.2 3.1 4.3 8.0 2.3 3.5 5.0 2.5 5.0 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.7 4.7 4.0 7.4 C. aromatica Nagsar, Titasar, Jorhat Besar, Along Kanchanpur, Tripura Namachi Pakyong Nayabunglow, Meghalaya Shillong Phu, E. Sikkim Pedong, Kalimpong Ca 72 Udayagiri 7034_C002.fm Page 51 Thursday, January 25, 2007 2:10 PM Botany and Crop Improvement of Turmeric 51 TABLE 2.10 (Continued) Cultivar Diversity of Turmeric and Their Quality Parameters S. No. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.
6E)-1-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3,4- R = OMe; R’ = OH; R’’ = dihydroxy phenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (4) H 5’-Methoxycurcumin (5) R = R’ = R’’ = OMe O O OR R' R' HO OH (E)-1,7-Bis-(4-hydroxy- 3-methoxyphenyl)- 1-heptene-3,5-dione (6) R=H R’ = OMe (E)-1,7-Bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-hepten-3,5-dione (7) R = R’ = H (E)-7-Hydroxy-1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-heptene-3,5- R = OH dione (8) R’ = OMe O MeO O OMe OH HO Cyclocurcumin (9) FIGURE 3.1 Diphenylheptanoids
whole-mother rhizomes may offer no special advantage over split-mother rhizomes or fingers. The use of rhizome halves is recommended to solve any problem of seed scarcity. Aiyadurai (1966) states that mother rhizomes were found to be better than finger rhizomes in Orissa. In Andhra Pradesh, mother rhizomes when planted as whole or even as split halves, gave rise to more vigorous sprouts than the fingers. But fingers keep better in storage and remained more tolerant to wet soil conditions, and