World Soil Resources and Food Security (Advances in Soil Science)
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Soil—The Basis of All Terrestrial Life
Ancient civilizations and cultures—Mayan, Aztec, Mesopotamian, Indus, and Yangtze—were built on good soils, surviving only as long as soils had the capacity to support them. In the twenty-first century, productive soil is still the engine of economic development and essential to human well-being. The quality of our soil resources, however, is threatened by human-induced and natural perturbations.
World Soil Resources and Food Security takes an in-depth look at the availability and status of soil resources in the context of the growing demands of an increasing world population and rising expectations of living standards. This timely reference presents current information on the soil resources available for food production. Presenting innovative strategies for soil and water management, it discusses how to maintain or improve the world’s soil resources in order to increase food production. With the majority of the world’s 1.02 billion food-insecure people concentrated in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, several chapters focus on soil resources in these regions.
Contributions from renowned scientists deal with topics including:
- Global food situations
- World soil resources
- Soil resources of humid Asia and their acidification
- Soil resources of South Asia
- Properties and management of Vertisols
- Use of radioisotopic techniques in soil management
- The potential of rain-fed agriculture in the semiarid tropics
- The status of land degradation
- Nutrient balance in sub-Saharan Africa
The book concludes by outlining the need for further research to generate credible data on soil resources and degradation. This volume is a useful resource for those interested in the state of the soils of the world in relation to food security and environmental quality.
continue, health costs for the developing economies could be substantial. In most developing countries, people are a major resource and public health is a key to economic progress. Research shows that obesity reduces productivity [Thompson et al. 1994]. Moreover, health costs associated with the growing rate of obesity and its related diseases could overwhelm the healthcare systems of developing countries already overburdened with the costs of combating communicable diseases and the effects of
to form 1.4 nm minerals. Japanese soils are young and have much Al–OH species in soil solution, resulting in Al hydroxide between the 2:1 layers and gibbsite, while Al hydroxides and gibbsite have not formed or were already removed from the more highly weathered Indonesian soils. In soils derived from mica-free parent material, which for clay mineral compositions are kaolin minerals and smectite, the clay mineral composition changes to the kaolin apex along the mineral axis of the 1.4 nm
content in soil at 5-cm depth (Forest) 0.0 Nov-04 Jan-05 Mar-05 May-05 Jul-05 Sep-05 Date FIGURE 4.23 The seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric soil water content. 108 World Soil Resources and Food Security C flux (µ gC m2 s–1) 60 Thailand RP 40 20 0 Feb-04 Apr-04 Jun-04 Aug-04 Oct-04 Dec-04 Feb-05 Apr-05 Date C flux (µ gC m2 s–1) 60 Indonesia BS Forest Cropland 40 20 0 Nov-04 Jan-05 Mar-05 May-05 Jul-05 Sep-05 Nov-05 Date FIGURE 4.24 Seasonal
and R.N.J. Comans. 2007. Measuring the specific caesium sorption capacity of soils, sediments and clay minerals. Appl. Geochem. 22:219–229. Delvaux, B., N. Kruyts, and A. Cremers. 2000. Rhizosperic mobilization of rediocaesium in soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34:1489–1493. Delvaux, B., N. Kruyts, E. Maes, and E. Smolders. 2001. Fate of radiocesium in soil and rhizosphere. In Trace elements in the rhizosphere, G.R. Gobran, W.W. Wenzel, and E. Lombi, eds., 61–91. London: CRC Press. Dumat, C., M.V.
Decomposition of soil organic matter Decomposition of O horizon Decomposition of mineral soil Litterfall Wood increment a b NG TG KT 78 2.0 0.4 0.6 1.0 83 2.9 2.1 0.6 0.2 115 4.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 3.6 187 30.6 121 3.4 66 5.0 1.5 3.4 1.6 1.9 1.7 1.5 8.2 2.8 5.5 3.4 2.0 2.1 2.5 9.3 4.2 5.1 4.1 1.0 2.9 10.1 The A and B horizons corresponded to the A1 and A2 horizons, respectively, at NG. Organic carbon in soil at 0−30 cm depths was counted. pH Depth Site Particle Size Distribution