You Kant Make It Up!: Strange Ideas from History's Great Philosophers
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Reality, then, consists of minds and ideas. Nothing else. Does this mean that nothing is real? That rocks, stars, clouds and trees are mere illusions? Not at all. The world according to Berkeley looks, feels, tastes, smells and sounds identical to the world of the materialist. The objects in Berkeley’s world behave just as consistently and just as predictably as those in the materialist’s. The only thing missing from Berkeley’s world is matter – and this, Berkeley argued, is a redundant notion
young man named Meno, discuss human virtue. One of its most interesting features is a practical demonstration by Socrates of the idea that what we call learning is really remembering. 101 Socrates calls over one of Meno’s slave-boys and presents him with a geometrical problem. He draws a square measuring two feet by two feet, and gets the boy to agree that its area is four square feet. Socrates then asks how long each side would need to be to make a square twice as big. Without hesitation, the
thousand to one times infinity equals infinity. So the expected value of believing is infinite. The same holds true even if you think there’s a million-toone chance, or even a billion-to-one chance, that God exists. No matter how unlikely you think it is that God exists, the maths says you ought to believe in Him anyway. Some versions of the wager argument introduce an extra element into the calculations: namely, the eternal punishment of non-believers. This packs a huge psychological punch.
collection or 122 aggregatum of simple substances’. These simple substances cannot be extended – they can have neither size nor shape – since then they could be divided still further and would not be simple after all. Simple substances, being unextended, must be immaterial. This means that they must be minds, albeit perhaps of a very rudimentary sort. The fundamental units of nature are, therefore, immaterial soul-like entities which Leibniz labelled monads. Monadology What else can be said
world, each from our own perspective. But space itself is unreal. (Think of those computer games where players explore and interact with a virtual world. Objects in that world appear to be located in three-dimensional space. But they’re not really. That’s just the way they’re represented to us.) Similar considerations apply to time, which is also, according to Leibniz, unreal. 2. COULDN’T BE BETTER 18. THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE 19. HOW DID THAT HAPPEN? 126 20 127 OUCH! I FEEL GOOD The Greek